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Phosphate belongs to the major mineral nutrient category in plants and is a non-renewable resource. Many natural soils are phosphate deficient, and phosphate fixation into insoluble mineral complexes limits plant growth by decreasing root uptake. Different strategies have appeared during the evolution of land plants to cope with this situation, one of which is to interact with various microbes (bacteria and fungi) located in the plant rhizosphere. This chapter will focus on three major groups of fungi that colonise the roots of most land plants: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycotina), fungi from the order Sebacinales (Basidiomycota) and the diverse form-group of dark septate endophytes (Ascomycota). Three major mechanisms of fungal contribution to plant nutrition will be discussed. First, fungi are able to solubilise phosphate from inorganic sources that are not available to plants. Second, fungi can set free mineral nutrients from organic compounds/sources. Third, fungi are able to transport phosphate along their hyphae towards the plant, thereby bridging phosphate depletion zones around the roots. In this chapter, we summarise published knowledge on this topic and present some new non-published data to complete our current model.
The last step in the IVF treatment cycle, embryo transfer, is also the process with the highest failure rate. No matter how good the laboratory technique is, a successful pregnancy will not be achieved without meticulous preparation of the uterus to accept the embryo. This book reviews the scientific evidence on endometrial receptivity, including histological, hormonal, biochemical, and immunological factors. Practical and concise, it supports gynecologists and embryologists to make evidence-based decisions that can influence the success rates of implantation and live births. Part of a series of books offering treatments and strategies for fertility and conception to optimize IVF outcomes, this volume is for all clinicians and embryologists working in reproductive medicine.
This comprehensive review of the factors that affect the harvesting and preparation of oocytes and the management of embryos will allow practitioners to make evidence-based decisions for successful IVF. The book reviews and re-considers the value of strategies and outcomes in the management of fertility and conception rates, centred on the production of oocytes, and successful development of the embryo. Authored by leading experts in the field, chapters engage with treatments and strategies that affect the production of oocytes and embryos, optimizing outcomes in the management of female fertility, conception rates, and live births. This vital guide covers controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, the role of AMH in determining ovarian reserve, and primary stimulation agents and the use of adjuncts. Integral for all clinicians and embryologists working in reproductive medicine units, readers are provided with evidence-based, comprehensive advice and review of all factors affecting the management of oocytes and the embryo that are vital for successful IVF cycles.
Background: Anatomic variants of the circle of Willis (CW) are commonly observed in healthy subjects. Genetic and environmental factors influencing these variants remain unclear. Our aim was to assess the genetic and environmental background affecting variant CW phenotypes. Methods: A total of 122 adult healthy twins from the Hungarian Twin Registry (39 monozygotic (MZ) and 22 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, average age 49.7 ± 13.4 years) underwent Time-of-Flight magnetic resonance angiography and transcranial Doppler sonography. We investigated the anterior and posterior CW according to morphological categories. Prevalence and concordance rates of CW variants were calculated. MZ twins discordant for CW variants were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors and altered blood flow. Results: Complete CW (45.0%) and bilaterally absent posterior communicating artery (PCoA) (22.5%) were the most prevalent variants in the anterior and posterior CW, respectively. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of variants across zygosity except for bilaterally hypoplastic PCoA (p = .02). DZ concordance was higher compared to MZ twins regarding morphological categories of the CW. Cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly associated with variant CW in MZ twins discordant to CW morphology. Flow parameters did not differ significantly among MZ twins discordant to CW variants. Conclusion: CW variants may not be determined by substantial genetic effects and are not influenced by altered blood flow in healthy individuals. Further investigations are needed to identify potential environmental factors affecting these variants.