This work reports a new type of actinospore, Unicapsulactinomyxon, which exhibits a unique morphological characteristic in that it has a single and large polar capsule (9·3×4·1 μm) (which possesses a longitudinally-folded polar filament) instead of the 3 polar capsules previously described for actinosporeans. The spore has a binucleated sporoplasm and 3 valves, each of which forms a long process. The spore has a total length of 241·3 μm. This parasite develops in groups of 8 inside pansporocysts in the coelomic cavity of the polychaete host. Molecular investigations on the SSU rDNA show that the new actinospore type is most closely related to Enteromyxum species (81–84% similarity). A survey of actinospore infections of the marine polychaete Diopatra neapolitana in 2007 and 2009, in the Aveiro Estuary (Portugal), showed an annual prevalence of 1·0% and 0·3%, respectively.