To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To ensure that workers in certain industries are not exposed to harmful levels of toxic chemicals, it is necessary to provide regular monitoring of the concentrations of chemical contaminants in the workplace air. In the United Kingdom, monitoring is normally carried out on a routine basis by the factory occupier backed up by periodic visits from the Factory Inspectorate acting on behalf of the Government. The main source of guidance for occupational hygienists in assessing conditions in a factory is the list of threshold limit values (TLVs) published annually by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Threshold limit values refer to airborne concentrations of substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effect.
High resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy (HRXES) has been used to record the Si Kβ spectra of a variety of minerals. Distinct changes in peak profile can be related to mineral typo. Representatives spectra were chosen and incorporated, into a computer programme to allow the determination of free silica in binary and quaternary mixtures. The potential of HRXES for the analysis of airborne dust samples is discussed.
Bacterial cultures exposed to iron-doped apatite nanoparticles (IDANPs) prior to the introduction of antagonistic viruses experience up to 2.3 times the bacterial destruction observed in control cultures. Maximum antibacterial activity of these bacteria-specific viruses, or phage, occurs after bacterial cultures have been exposed to IDANPs for 1 hr prior to phage introduction, demonstrating that IDANP-assisted phage therapy would not be straight forward, but would instead require controlled time release of IDANPs and phage. These findings motivated the design of an electrospun nanofiber mesh treatment delivery system that allows burst release of IDANPs, followed by slow, consistent release of phage for treatment of topical bacterial infections. IDANPs resemble hydroxyapatite, a biocompatible mineral analogous to the inorganic constituent of mammalian bone, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for many biomedical purposes. The composite nanofiber mesh was designed for IDANP-assisted phage therapy treatment of topical wounds and consists of a superficial, rapid release layer of polyethylene oxide (PEO) fibers doped with IDANPs, followed by inner, coaxial polycaprolactone / polyethylene glycol (PCL/PEG) blended polymer fiber layer for slower phage delivery. Our investigations have established that IDANP-doped PEO fibers are effective vehicles for dissemination of IDANPs for bacterial exposure and resultant increased bacterial death by phage. In this work, slower delivery of the phage behind IDANPs was accomplished using coaxial, electrospun fibers composed of PCL/PEG polymer blend.
We present the results of simulations that explore the variety of accretion flows possible in magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs). Our simulations evolve to equilibrium periods spanning 0.01 < Рspin/Рorb < 0.6 and the resulting flows vary from disc-fed systems at Рspin/Рorb ~ 0.01 - 0.1, to stream fed systems at Рspin/Рorb ~ 0.1 - 0.5 and systems fed from a ring at the outer edge of the white dwarf's Roche lobe at Рspin/Рorb ~ 0.6.
NeuroStar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective acute treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In order to further understand use of the NeuroStar in a clinical setting, Neuronetics has established a patient treatment and outcomes registry to collect and analyze utilization information on patients receiving treatment with the NeuroStar.
Individual NeuroStar providers are invited to participate in the registry and agree to provide their de-identified patient treatment data. The NeuroStar has an integrated electronic data management system (TrakStar) which allows for the data collection to be automated. The data collected for the registry include Demographic Elements (age, gender), Treatment Parameters, and Clinical Ratings. Clinical assessments are: Clinician Global Impression - Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and thePatient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9). De-identified patient data is uploaded to Registry server; an independent statistical service then creates final data reports.
Over 500 patients have entered the NeuroStar Outcomes Registry since Sept 2016. Mean patient age: 48.0 (SD±16.0); 64% Female. Baseline PHQ-9, mean 18.8 (SD±5.0.) Response/Remission Rate, PHQ-9: 61%/33% CGI-S: 78%/59%.
For the initial 500 patients in the Outcomes Registry, approximately 2/3 patients achieve respond and 1/3 patients achieve remission with an acute course of NeuroStar. These treatment outcomes consistent with NeuroStar open-label study data (Carpenter, 2012). The TrakStar data management system makes large scale data collection feasible. The NeuroStarOutcomes Registry is ongoing, and expected to reach 6000 outpatients from more than 47 clinical sites in 36 months.
The Mars Society is an international private organisation advocating the exploration and settlement of Mars. Part of its mission involves selecting areas for Martian analogue research, to test hardware, technology, strategies and human factors relevant to sending people to Mars. Mars Society Australia has selected an area in the Arkaroola region in the Flinders Ranges as the site for the first Australian analogue facility. The facility will be an invaluable public education and outreach tool for Australian science, focusing on astrobiology, and its role in future human Mars missions; demonstrating Australian contributions to astrobiology related science and work on terrestrial analogues to Martian environments.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Recent evidence from resting-state fMRI studies have shown that brain network connectivity is altered in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. However, few studies have examined the complete connectivity patterns of these well-reported RSNs using a whole brain approach and how they compare between dementias. Here, we used advanced connectomic approaches to examine the connectivity of RSNs in Alzheimer disease (AD), Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and age-matched control participants. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 44 participants [27 controls (66.4±7.6 years), 13 AD (68.5.63±13.9 years), 4 FTD (59.575±12.2 years)] from an ongoing study at Indiana University School of Medicine were used. Resting-state fMRI data was processed using an in-house pipeline modeled after Power et al. (2014). Images were parcellated into 278 regions of interest (ROI) based on Shen et al. (2013). Connectivity between each ROI pair was described by Pearson correlation coefficient. Brain regions were grouped into 7 canonical RSNs as described by Yeo et al. (2015). Pearson correlation values were then averaged across pairs of ROIs in each network and averaged across individuals in each group. These values were used to determine relative expression of FC in each RSN (intranetwork) and create RSN profiles for each group. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our findings support previous literature which shows that limbic networks are disrupted in FTLD participants compared with AD and age-matched controls. In addition, interactions between different RSNs was also examined and a significant difference between controls and AD subjects was found between FP and DMN RSNs. Similarly, previous literature has reported a disruption between executive (frontoparietal) network and default mode network in AD compared with controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our approach allows us to create profiles that could help compare intranetwork FC in different neurodegenerative diseases. Future work with expanded samples will help us to draw more substantial conclusions regarding differences, if any, in the connectivity patterns between RSNs in various neurodegenerative diseases.
Estuaries were important sites of deposition throughout most of the Pennsylvanian in the Midcontinent. Modern estuaries typically occur within flooded river valleys where marine and fresh waters mix. Characteristic estuarine circulation results in locally high rates of deposition of muddy sediment that can lead to good preservation of fossils. Several Pennsylvanian conservat-Lagerstätten are best interpreted as having formed within ancient estuaries. Three types of estuarine deposits have been identified. Type 1 estuarine systems are large-scale transgressive systems that start with fluvial sands overlying an erosional surface. This is overlain successively by middle-estuarine laminated mudstone, and finally marine mudstone and shale. Well-preserved fossils occur in laminated mudstones and siltstones. This sequence may include within in it type 3 estuarine Lagerstätten. An example is the Douglas Group (Missourian, Kansas).
Type 2 estuarine Lagerstätten consist of thin estuarine deposits confined to narrow paleochannels. This includes the Garnett (Missourian, Kansas) and Hamilton (Virgilian, Kansas) deposits, both of which contain articulated vertebrates and well-preserved plants. Both channels are filled with mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sediments. Fine grained facies from which the best fossils are recovered in both contain evidence of tidal deposition, although tidal rhythmicity is best developed in the Hamilton channel. Plant assemblages in both are dominated by the conifer Walchia, probably indicating a relatively dry climate.
Type 3 estuarine Lagerstätten consist of thick gray-shale wedges that overlie coals. The best-known example is the Francis Creek Shale (Desmoinesian, Illinois). A relatively wet climate is indicated by abundant fern and seed-fern foliage. Laminations in shale facies commonly show well-developed tidal rhythmicity. A typical stratigraphic succession starts with laminated shale overlying coal. This grades upwards into flaser and lenticular bedding to ripple and then large-scale cross-bedded sandstone. Upright trees rooted in the coal indicate rapid burial. Well-preserved fossils are recovered from early-diagenetic siderite concretions from the laminated shale.
Preservation of fossils is best in laminated mudstones deposited in middle-estuarine environments where conditions are ideal for good preservation. In all cases so far studied the zones of best preservation are well laminated and have sparse (if any) burrows and sessile benthic fossils. Most of the well-preserved organisms are terrestrial, nektonic, or at least mobile. Brackish and fluctuating salinities restricted scavenging and burrowing organisms that may scatter skeletons. High turbidity and deposition rate may have further discouraged many organisms. Matching bedding rhythmicity with tidal cycles allows calculation of depositional rates of 1 cm or more of compacted sediment per 2-week neap-spring tidal cycle. This is consistent with the high rates of deposition known from modern tidal environments. High depositional rates assured that any organism that fell to the sea floor was buried in a few hours to a few days. Once buried anoxic conditions established around decaying carcasses may have led to early mineralization.
Over the years, we've participated in several different workshops and short courses on trace fossils. So why this one? Our intention in bringing together these papers for the Trace Fossil Short Course is to give an overview of how trace fossils can be used in paleontology. Historically, trace fossil research has centered on paleoenvironmental and depositional reconstructions—areas where trace fossils have much to tell. Indeed, the use of trace fossils by sedimentologists has flourished and is experiencing another burst of activity through the use of ichnofabrics in sequence stratigraphic studies. But trace fossils have paleontological stories to tell as well. Their use in uncovering the first occurrences of life in different parts of the stratigraphic column is well documented (e.g., the classic example of trace fossils occurring before body fossils in Precambrian/Cambrian transitional strata) as is their use in detailing different morphological details of unpreserved taxa or body parts.