To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) may increase the risk of offspring depression in childhood. Low birth weight is also associated with increased risk of mental health problems, including depression. This study sought to investigate (a) whether there is an association between HDP and the risk of depression in childhood and (b) whether low birth weight mediates this association. The current study is based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective, population-based study that has followed a cohort of offspring since their mothers were pregnant (n = 6,739). Depression at the age of 7 years was diagnosed using parent reports via the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Log-binomial regression and mediation analyses were used. Children exposed to HDP were 2.3 times more likely to have a depression diagnosis compared with nonexposed children, adjusted Risk Ratio [RR], 2.31; 95% CI, [1.20, 4.47]. Low birth weight was a weak mediator of this association. Results were adjusted for confounding variables including antenatal depression and anxiety during pregnancy.This study suggests that fetal exposure to maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increased the risk of childhood depression. The study adds to the evidence suggesting that the uterine environment is a critical determinant of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric outcomes.
Survival and infectivity of trypanosomatids rely on cell-surface and secreted glycoconjugates, many of which contain a variable number of galactose residues. Incorporation of galactose to proteins and lipids occurs along the secretory pathway from UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). Before being used in glycosylation reactions, however, this activated sugar donor must first be transported across the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes by a specific nucleotide sugar transporter (NST). In this study, we identified an UDP-Gal transporter (named TcNST2 and encoded by the TcCLB.504085.60 gene) from Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. TcNST2 was identified by heterologous expression of selected putative nucleotide sugar transporters in a mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. TcNST2 mRNA levels were detected in all T. cruzi life-cycle forms, with an increase in expression in axenic amastigotes. Confocal microscope analysis indicated that the transporter is specifically localized to the Golgi apparatus. A three-dimensional model of TcNST2 suggested an overall structural conservation as compared with members of the metabolite transporter superfamily and also suggested specific features that could be related to its activity. The identification of this transporter is an important step toward a better understanding of glycoconjugate biosynthesis and the role NSTs play in this process in trypanosomatids.
Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB). Little is known about how research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (bidirectionality). This program evaluation assessed researcher presentations from 2014 to 2018 to the CABs linked to our CTSA at all three sites (Minnesota, Arizona, and Florida) for relevance to local community needs identified in 2013 and/or 2016. From content analysis, of 65 presentations total, 41 (63%) addressed ≥1 local health needs (47% Minnesota, 60% Florida, and 80% Arizona). Cross-cutting topics were cancer/cancer prevention (physical activity/obesity/nutrition) and mental health. Results could help to prioritize health outcomes of community-engaged research efforts.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB), an effective strategy to increase community engagement (CE) in research. Little is known about how the research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (i.e., bi-directionality). This program evaluation assessed the health topics presented by researchers to the CABs linked to our CE Program at all three Mayo Clinic sites (MN, AZ, and FL) for relevance to local community needs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two coders classified Mayo researcher presentations to our CABs from 2014-2018 for relevance to needs identified in the local 2013 and/or 2016 County Health Needs Assessments and specific topic(s); with high levels of agreement (Kappa=0.90). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, of the 65 presentations 41 (63%) addressed one or more local health needs (47% MN, 60% FL, 80% AZ). Cross-cutting health topics addressed at 2 sites were physical activity/obesity/nutrition and mental health. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings were shared with our CABs to obtain input on future directions. The FL and AZ CABs are systematic in seeking out or initiating research projects that address local health needs, an approach the MN site is interested in adopting. Ultimately, it is important to demonstrate improved health outcomes with CTSA-based CE research strategies. Understanding community health needs and depth of researchers in those areas may help to focus priorities for demonstrating such outcomes.
Historical strandings and sightings (1989–2016) of Tursiops truncatus at 25oS in the south-western Atlantic Ocean (Paraná, Brazil) were assessed to (1) investigate temporal fluctuations; and (2) quantify biological, ecological and health parameters of regional populations. In total, 57 T. truncatus carcasses in mostly advanced stages of decomposition (~80% of all specimens) were recorded. Standardized temporal strandings (per observational effort) varied considerably and with no clear annual relationship beyond a peak in 2007, but there were consistently more strandings in winter/spring (74%) than summer/autumn (26%). While there was uncertainty over age estimation (i.e. not available for the population), individuals classified as juveniles/subadults were more frequent (80%) than calves (14%) and adults (6%). Of 28 carcasses assessed, 27 showed a positive linear relationship between TL and condyle-basal length, while one specimen had a clear southern skull morphotype. Suggestive lesions of Crassicauda sp. were recorded in 77% of assessed skulls and four types of tooth pathologies were observed. Nine individuals were more closely investigated for gross and histopathological alterations and had clear evidence of fishery interactions and various health issues associated with disease and oedema accompanied by alveolar fibrosis. While the regional frequency of T. truncatus strandings was lower than other more vulnerable cetaceans, the absolute numbers (e.g. 15 individuals in 2016) and some uncertainty concerning regional taxonomy are noteworthy, and justify ongoing spatio-temporal monitoring. Further, given the evidence of disease in some specimens, future work should not only encompass rigorous taxonomic assessments, but also health to comprehensively evaluate regional stocks. Small cetacean species are sentinels and their condition could inform ongoing environmental assessments.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) recurrence ranges from 16% to 43% and presents significant challenges to clinicians, patients, and families. This comparative effectiveness research study aims to disseminate, implement and evaluate whether an existing intervention, consisting of decolonization and decontamination procedures, which has been determined to be effective in hospital intensive care unit settings, can be implemented by Community Health Workers (CHWs) or “promotoras” conducting home visits prevent recurrence of CA-MRSA and transmission within their households for patients presenting to primary care with SSTIs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In partnership with 3 Community Health Centers and 4 community hospitals in NYC, this study will recruit patients (n=278) with confirmed MRSA SSTIs and their household members. Participants are randomized to receive either a CHW/Promotora-delivered decolonization-decontamination intervention or usual care, which includes hygiene education. The highly engaged stakeholder team meets monthly to review interim results, identify areas for refinement and new research questions, and develop and implement strategies to improve participant engagement and retention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: MRSA and MSSA were found in 19% and 21.1% of wound cultures, respectively. 59.5% with MRSA+ wound culture had one or more MRSA+ surveillance culture; 67.8% with MSSA+ wound culture had one or more MSSA+ surveillance culture. The “warm handoff” approach, developed and implemented by the stakeholder team to engage patients from their initial consent to return of lab results and scheduling of the home visits, helped improve completion of baseline home visits by 14%, from 45% to 59% of eligible participants. Home visits have demonstrated that 60% of households had at least one surface contaminated with S. aureus. Of the surfaces that tested positive in the households, nearly 20% were MRSA and 81% were MSSA; 32.5% of household members had at least one surveillance culture positive for S. aureus (MRSA: 7.7%, MSSA: 92.3%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study aims to understand the systems-level, patient-level, and environmental-level factors associated with SSTI recurrence and household transmission, and to examine the interactions between bacterial genotypic and clinical/phenotypic factors on decontamination, decolonization, SSTI recurrence and household transmission. This study will evaluate the barriers and facilitators of implementation of home visits by CHWs in underserved populations, and aims to strengthen the weak evidence base for implementation of strategies to reduce SSTI recurrence and household transmission.