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Background: Cervical sponylotic myelopathy (CSM) may present with neck and arm pain. This study investiagtes the change in neck/arm pain post-operatively in CSM. Methods: This ambispective study llocated 402 patients through the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network. Outcome measures were the visual analogue scales for neck and arm pain (VAS-NP and VAS-AP) and the neck disability index (NDI). The thresholds for minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were determined to be 2.6 and 4.1. Results: VAS-NP improved from mean of 5.6±2.9 to 3.8±2.7 at 12 months (P<0.001). VAS-AP improved from 5.8±2.9 to 3.5±3.0 at 12 months (P<0.001). The MCIDs for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were also reached at 12 months. Based on the NDI, patients were grouped into those with mild pain/no pain (33%) versus moderate/severe pain (67%). At 3 months, a significantly high proportion of patients with moderate/severe pain (45.8%) demonstrated an improvement into mild/no pain, whereas 27.2% with mild/no pain demonstrated worsening into moderate/severe pain (P <0.001). At 12 months, 17.4% with mild/no pain experienced worsening of their NDI (P<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that neck and arm pain responds to surgical decompression in patients with CSM and reaches the MCIDs for VAS-AP and VAS-NP at 12 months.
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, linked to several structural abnormalities of the brain. More specifically, previous findings have suggested that increased gyrification in frontal and temporal regions are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
The current study included participants at high familial risk of schizophrenia who remained well (n = 31), who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms (n = 28) and who developed schizophrenia (n = 9) as well as healthy controls (HC) (n = 16). We first tested whether individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia carried an increased burden of trait-associated alleles using polygenic risk score analysis. We then assessed the extent to which polygenic risk was associated with gyral folding in the frontal and temporal lobes.
We found that individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia who developed schizophrenia carried a significantly greater burden of risk-conferring variants for the disorder compared to those at high risk (HR) who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms or remained well and HC. Furthermore, within the HR cohort, there was a significant and positive association between schizophrenia polygenic risk score and bilateral frontal gyrification.
These results suggest that polygenic risk for schizophrenia impacts upon early neurodevelopment to confer greater gyral folding in adulthood and an increased risk of developing the disorder.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our objectives with this project are to engage communities through technology creating a communication channel with affected communities and stakeholders about mosquito-borne illness, vector control and environmental health risk. Furthermore, engaging communities to electronically map ecological risks that impact mosquito-borne illness with the goal of creating a mobile application that will work as an ecological surveillance against mosquito proliferation and potential mosquito population reduction, and finally pilot test and evaluate potential benefits in communities where the application was used. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We propose a methodology to perform formative community work that will underscore a distributed, democratized ecological surveillance through an integration of multidimensional health behavior theories that address the challenges of ZIKV in Culebra, a marginalized island community off the coast of the main island of Puerto Rico. Using participatory design, we will develop, test, and evaluate users’ experiences towards mobile applications using qualitative (interviews) and quantitative (survey) methodologies. A mobile application with the capacity of mapping, use of social-media, crowdsourcing, and photo-voice in a dynamic and simple way will allow community members to alert “hot-zone” locations to the stakeholders interested in creating ecological action in their community. This multidimensional concept integrates explanatory and prospective approaches and will generate systematic short-term solutions for mosquito control and long-term solutions providing the necessary tools for community empowerment. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our proposed design will facilitate better understanding of the interactions between community members and socio-environmental determinants of mosquito-borne diseases. Furthermore, our proposed project will not only facilitate communication among members of a community, but also it will provide a platform for engagement and empowerment, establishing a change in the preventive paradigm of how communities face the negative impacts of micro-ecologies that surround them. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our proposed community collaboratory mHealth tool mZAP! (Zonas, Accion y Proteccion) will address the lack of community participation efforts against mosquito-borne diseases contributed simultaneously by the disengagement and disempowerment of community members. mZAP! will serve as an innovative tool to engage marginalized and communities made vulnerable in Puerto Rico. This approach should be successful as Puerto Rico is one of the most digitally connected countries in Latin America, with high mobile phone usage rates and social media use. Using mZAP!, communities will report and map breeding sites, use social media and crowd sensing, targeting against powerful tools against mosquito ecologies in their own environments. This application could result in an effective way to change the paradigms for public health approaches to use Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) to empower communities.
Information on the structure of the molecular flow within 1″ of IRC-2, in Orion-KL, is sparse. Measurements of the continuum at 7.8μ and 12.5μ show a disk of size and suggest that the center of the disk may be dust free (Lester et al. 1985). Aperture synthesis mapping of water maser shell features (Sylber 1986) has provided information on the scale. Smaller scales can be studied by mapping SiO maser emission. We observed the 43 GHz, v=1, J = 1 → 0, transition of SiO using a 2 station interferometer with a 74 km baseline between Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA and Five College Radio Observatory, New Salem, MA. The fringe spacing was 20 milliarcseconds (mas) and the velocity resolution was 0.25 km-s−1. Our results provide the highest resolution view to date of what is likely to be the inner of IRC-2.
There is a lack of evidence pointing to the efficacy of any specific psychotherapy for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to compare three psychological treatments for AN: Specialist Supportive Clinical Management, Maudsley Model Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults and Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was conducted with outcomes assessed at pre-, mid- and post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up by researchers blind to treatment allocation. All analyses were intention-to-treat. One hundred and twenty individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for AN were recruited from outpatient treatment settings in three Australian cities and offered 25–40 sessions over a 10-month period. Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder psychopathology. Secondary outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress and psychosocial impairment.
Treatment was completed by 60% of participants and 52.5% of the total sample completed 12-month follow-up. Completion rates did not differ between treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments on continuous outcomes; all resulted in clinically significant improvements in BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology and psychosocial impairment that were maintained over follow-up. There were no significant differences between treatments with regard to the achievement of a healthy weight (mean = 50%) or remission (mean = 28.3%) at 12-month follow-up.
The findings add to the evidence base for these three psychological treatments for adults with AN, but the results underscore the need for continued efforts to improve outpatient treatments for this disorder.
The revolutions of 1989 in central and east Europe raise crucial questions for the social sciences. Is it possible to build democracy and capitalism simultaneously in societies that have no real history of either system? Will democracy really take root and flourish in societies without an existing market economy? Or will the monumental task of creating a market economy strain these new democratic governments to the limit and ultimately lead to an authoritarian backlash? Since the transition to democracy from socialism is unprecedented, history can offer little useful data from which to derive well founded predictions.
Reference archaeomagnetic secular variation (SV) curves recently have been proposed for the Iberian Peninsula and may now be used for archaeomagnetic dating. Archaeomagnetic dating is a relative dating technique that is strongly dependent on the age control of the data used to construct the reference curves. In order to test the method, an archaeological structure from central Spain has been studied. Samples have been taken for both archaeomagnetic and radiocarbon dating, and the results are compared. Close agreement is observed between both techniques, with the archaeomagnetic age of AD 603–999 overlapping the calibrated age of AD 770–890. These results demonstrate the reliability of the proposed reference curves as a dating tool within the Iberian Peninsula during this archaeological period.
There is now a well-established link between childhood adversity (CA) and schizophrenia. Similar structural abnormalities to those found in schizophrenia including alterations in grey-matter volume have also been shown in those who experience CA.
We examined whether global estimates of cortical thickness or surface area were altered in those familial high-risk subjects who had been referred to a social worker or the Children's Panel compared to those who had not.
We found that the cortical surface area of those who were referred to the Children's Panel was significantly smaller than those who had not been referred, but cortical thickness was not significantly altered. There was also an effect of social work referral on cortical surface area but not on thickness.
Cortical surface area increases post-natally more than cortical thickness. Our findings suggest that CA can influence structural changes in the brain and it is likely to have a greater impact on cortical surface area than on cortical thickness.
High quality InGaN films have led to the development of LEDs and blue lasers. The quaternary AlInGaN however, represents a more versatile material since the bandgap and lattice constant can be independently varied. We report on such films grown on (0001) sapphire substrates in an atmospheric pressure MOCVD reactor at 750-800°C. The ternary films have a composition of up to 40% InN and the quaternary films were grown in the composition range of 0 to 20% AlN and 0 to 20% InN. The quaternary compositions studied by EDS and the lattice constants from double crystal XRD followed Vegard's law indicating solid solubility for the range studied. Room temperature PL is dominated by band edge emission for InGaN and AlInGaN, at low AlN%. Higher AlN alloys of AlInGaN had PL dominated by deep levels. AlInGaN/InGaN and AlGaN/InGaN heterostructures were grown with abrupt interfaces. We emphasize the most important growth parameters for the growth of high quality ternary and quaternary thin films. The structural, electrical and optical properties of these In-based ternary and quaternary films and their lattice matched and strained heterostructures will also be presented.
Schizophrenia is associated with various brain structural abnormalities, including reduced volume of the hippocampi, prefrontal lobes and thalami. Cannabis use increases the risk of schizophrenia but reports of brain structural abnormalities in the cannabis-using population have not been consistent. We used automated image analysis to compare brain structural changes over time in people at elevated risk of schizophrenia for familial reasons who did and did not use cannabis.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from subjects at high familial risk of schizophrenia at entry to the Edinburgh High Risk Study (EHRS) and approximately 2 years later. Differential grey matter (GM) loss in those exposed (n = 23) and not exposed to cannabis (n = 32) in the intervening period was compared using tensor-based morphometry (TBM).
Cannabis exposure was associated with significantly greater loss of right anterior hippocampal (pcorrected = 0.029, t = 3.88) and left superior frontal lobe GM (pcorrected = 0.026, t = 4.68). The former finding remained significant even after the exclusion of individuals who had used other drugs during the inter-scan interval.
Using an automated analysis of longitudinal data, we demonstrate an association between cannabis use and GM loss in currently well people at familial risk of developing schizophrenia. This observation may be important in understanding the link between cannabis exposure and the subsequent development of schizophrenia.
A masked analysis of videotaped assessments of people at high genetic risk of schizophrenia revealed that those who subsequently went on to develop schizophrenia used significantly more second-person pronouns. This was evident before diagnosis, at two separate assessments approximately 18 months apart. This supports the view that people who go on to develop schizophrenia may have an abnormality in the deictic frame of interpersonal communication – that is, the distinction between concepts being self-generated or from elsewhere may be blurred prior to the onset of a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
No longitudinal study has yet examined the association between substance use and brain volume changes in a population at high risk of schizophrenia.
To examine the effects of cannabis on longitudinal thalamus and amygdala-hippocampal complex volumes within a population at high risk of schizophrenia.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from individuals at high genetic risk of schizophrenia at the point of entry to the Edinburgh High-Risk Study (EHRS) and approximately 2 years later. Differential thalamic and amygdala-hippocampal complex volume change in high-risk individuals exposed (n = 25) and not exposed (n = 32) to cannabis in the intervening period was investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance.
Cannabis exposure was associated with bilateral thalamic volume loss. This effect was significant on the left (F = 4.47, P = 0.04) and highly significant on the right (F=7.66, P=0.008). These results remained significant when individuals using other illicit drugs were removed from the analysis.
These are the first longitudinal data to demonstrate an association between thalamic volume loss and exposure to cannabis in currently unaffected people at familial high risk of developing schizophrenia. This observation may be important in understanding the link between cannabis exposure and the subsequent development of schizophrenia.
InGaN based optical devices can cover from the violet through orange regions of the visible spectrum. Difficulties in the growth of this alloy, which have impeded its applications, include problems such as the high vapor pressure of In, weak In-N bonds and lack of sufficient nitrogen during growth. We report on the MOCVD growth of InxGa1−xN (0 < x < 0.4) on sapphire substrates in the 750 - 800 °C temperature range. X-ray diffraction data show full width at half maximum line widths as narrow as 250 arcsec for low values of x, while films with higher lnN% exhibit broader line widths. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra exhibit band edge emission, with emission from deep levels increasing with x. Preliminary investigations of AlGaN/lnGaN/AlGaN double heterostructures have been conducted.
CeO2 is nearly lattice matched to Si and has the CaF2 cubic structure thus it offers the potential for the epitaxial growth of an insulating film on Si. Laser ablation of a CeO2 target in an ultra high vacuum system was used for the deposition of single crystal CeO2. The effect of post growth thermal and rapid thermal annealing in O2, N2 and Ar atmosphere was found to have pronounced effects on the electrical properties measured by C-V and the optical properties measured by photoluminescence.
We report on our initial results for the growth of epitaxial Si on the deposited CeO2 using low pressure CVD. Both RHEED and TEM studies showed that single crystal epitaxial Si was deposited on CeO2. The details of the Si deposition on CeO2 films for potential of SOI (silicon on insulator) structures will be discussed.
The emission wavelength of the InxGa1−xN ternary system can span from the near ultraviolet through red regions of the visible spectrum. High quality double heterostructures with these InxGa1−xN active layers are essential in the development of efficient optoelectronic devices such as high performance light emitting diodes and laser diodes. We will report on the MOCVD growth and characterization of thick and thin InGaN films. Thick InxGa1−xN films with values of x up to 0.40 have been deposited and their photoluminescence (PL) spectra measured. AlGaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructures (DHs) have been grown that exhibit PL emission in the violet, blue, green and yellow spectral regions, depending on the growth conditions of the thin InGaN active layer. Preliminary results of an AllnGaN/InGaN/AllnGaN DH, with the potential of realizing a near-lattice matched structure, will also be presented.
InGaN ternary alloys can be the basis for light emission from the near UV to the red region of the electromagnetic spectrum. When InGaN/AIGaN double heterostructures emitting different colors are stacked in a single structure, simultaneous emission of different wavelengths will be achieved. If the color and the intensity of emission for each well are adjusted properly, tailored emission spectra, including white light, will be feasible. We demonstrate this concept with two wells emitting at different wavelengths that are stacked between AIGaN barrier layers. The emitted PL spectra for the stacked structure is found to be the superposition of the emission from the individual double heterostructures that were grown separately.
We report on the growth and characterization of InGaN bulk films and AlGaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructures (DHs). Good quality bulk InGaN films have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with up to 40% InN as characterized by x-ray diffraction. The effect of hydrogen in the growth ambient on the lnN% incorporation in the InGaN films is presented. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of AlGaN/InGaN/AlGaN DHs exhibit emission wavelengths from the violet through yellow depending on the growth conditions of the active InGaN layer. The PL spectra are fairly broad both at room temperature and 20 K, and could be a result of native defects or impurity related transitions. We also observed a linear dependence between the PL intensity and excitation power density in the 0.001 W/cm2 to 10 MW/cm2 range. Time resolved PL of one of these DHs suggest a recombination lifetime on the order of 520 ps.
The development of high quality indium based III-nitride compounds is lagging behind the corresponding aluminum and gallium based compounds. Potential problems confronting the growth of epitaxial and double heterostructure InGaN will be discussed. A mass balance model is presented describing the competing reaction pathways occurring during the growth of indium containing compounds. Atomic layer epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown InGaN films will be used to explain this model. Also, the growth parameters leading to the attainment of high InN percentages, reduced indium metal formation, and improved structural and optical properties of indium containing nitrides will be discussed.