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To determine the impact of pre-operative intratympanic gentamicin injection on the recovery of patients undergoing translabyrinthine resection of vestibular schwannomas.
This prospective, case–control pilot study included eight patients undergoing surgical labyrinthectomy, divided into two groups: four patients who received pre-operative intratympanic gentamicin and four patients who did not. The post-operative six-canal video head impulse test responses and length of in-patient stay were assessed.
The average length of stay was shorter for patients who received intratympanic gentamicin (6.75 days; range, 6–7 days) than for those who did not (9.5 days; range, 8–11 days) (p = 0.0073). Additionally, the gentamicin group had normal post-operative video head impulse test responses in the contralateral ear, while the non-gentamicin group did not.
Pre-operative intratympanic gentamicin improves the recovery following vestibular schwannoma resection, eliminating, as per the video head impulse test, the impact of labyrinthectomy on the contralateral labyrinth.
To examine when cochlear fibrosis occurs following a translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma resection, and to determine the safest time window for potential cochlear implantation in cases with a preserved cochlear nerve.
This study retrospectively reviewed the post-operative magnetic resonance imaging scans of patients undergoing a translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma resection, assessing the fluid signal within the cochlea. Cochleae were graded based on the Isaacson et al. system (from grade 0 – no obstruction, to grade 4 – complete obliteration).
Thirty-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The cochleae showed no evidence of obliteration in: 75 per cent of patients at six months, 38.5 per cent at one year and 27 per cent beyond one year. Most changes happened between 6 and 12 months after vestibular schwannoma resection, with cases of an unobstructed cochlear decreasing dramatically, from 75 per cent to 38.5 per cent, within this time.
The progress of cochlear obliteration that occurred between 6 and 12 months following vestibular schwannoma resection indicates that the first 6 months provides a safer time window for cochlear patency.
To systematically summarise the peer-reviewed literature relating to the aetiology, clinical presentation, investigation and treatment of geniculate neuralgia.
Articles published in English between 1932 and 2012, identified using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases.
The search terms ‘geniculate neuralgia’, ‘nervus intermedius neuralgia’, ‘facial pain’, ‘otalgia’ and ‘neuralgia’ were used to identify relevant papers.
Fewer than 150 reported cases were published in English between 1932 and 2012. The aetiology of the condition remains unknown, and clinical presentation varies. Non-neuralgic causes of otalgia should always be excluded by a thorough clinical examination, audiological assessment and radiological investigations before making a diagnosis of geniculate neuralgia. Conservative medical treatment is always the first-line therapy. Surgical treatment should be offered if medical treatment fails. The two commonest surgical options are transection of the nervus intermedius, and microvascular decompression of the nerve at the nerve root entry zone of the brainstem. However, extracranial intratemporal division of the cutaneous branches of the facial nerve may offer a safer and similarly effective treatment.
The response to medical treatment for this condition varies between individuals. The long-term outcomes of surgery remain unknown because of limited data.
The temporal bone may be the first involved site in cases of systemic disease, and may even present with acute, mastoiditis-like symptomatology. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of such non-infectious ‘acute mastoiditis’ in children.
Materials and methods:
Retrospective chart review of 73 children admitted to a tertiary referral centre for acute mastoiditis.
In 71 cases (97.3 per cent), an infectious basis was identified. In the majority of cases (33 of 73; 45 per cent), the responsible bacteria was Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, histopathological studies revealed a non-infectious underlying disease (myelocytic leukaemia or Langerhans' cell histiocytosis) in two atypical cases (2.7 per cent).
‘Acute mastoiditis’ of non-infectious aetiology is a rare but real threat for children, and a challenging diagnosis for otologists. A non-infectious basis should be suspected in every atypical, persistent or recurrent case of acute mastoiditis.
To evaluate the significance of advanced post-operative haemostasis investigation in cases of recurrent, severe post-tonsillectomy bleeding.
Materials and methods:
Of the 120 patients treated at our tertiary centre between 2006 and 2010 due to post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage, 22 with recurrent, severe episodes of bleeding underwent further, advanced haemostasis investigation.
Underlying haemorrhagic disease was not diagnosed in any case. Isolated abnormal clotting factor levels were identified in two patients. Decreased fibrinogen concentration due to dilutional coagulopathy was found in nine cases (40.9 per cent).
Recurrent, severe post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage is rarely related to undiagnosed haemostatic disorders. Thus, advanced haemostasis studies have little therapeutic relevance. However, repetitive post-tonsillectomy bleeding may be related to decreased fibrinogen levels due to dilutional coagulopathy. Therefore, fibrinogen concentration should be tested, and dilutional coagulopathy treated promptly.
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