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Subjective cognitive difficulties are common in mental illness and have a negative impact on role functioning. Little is understood about subjective cognition and the longitudinal relationship with depression and anxiety symptoms in young people.
To examine the relationship between changes in levels of depression and anxiety and changes in subjective cognitive functioning over 3 months in help-seeking youth.
This was a cohort study of 656 youth aged 12–25 years attending Australian headspace primary mental health services. Subjective changes in cognitive functioning (rated as better, same, worse) reported after 3 months of treatment was assessed using the Neuropsychological Symptom Self-Report. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of baseline levels of and changes in depression (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ9) and anxiety symptoms (seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale; GAD7) on changes in subjective cognitive function at follow-up while controlling for covariates.
With a one-point reduction in PHQ9 at follow-up, there was an estimated 11–18% increase in ratings of better subjective cognitive functioning at follow-up, relative to stable cognitive functioning. A one-point increase in PHQ9 from baseline to follow-up was associated with 7–14% increase in ratings of worse subjective cognitive functioning over 3 months, relative to stable cognitive functioning. A similar attenuated pattern of findings was observed for the GAD7.
A clear association exists between subjective cognitive functioning outcomes and changes in self-reported severity of affective symptoms in young people over the first 3 months of treatment. Understanding the timing and mechanisms of these associations is needed to tailor treatment.
To explore stakeholder perspectives regarding online diabetes nutrition education for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Qualitative data were collected through focus groups and interviews. Focus group participants completed a brief demographic and internet use survey.
Focus groups and community participant interviews were conducted in diverse AI/AN communities. Interviews with nationally recognised content experts were held via teleconference.
Eight focus groups were conducted with AI/AN adults with T2D (n 29) and their family members (n 22). Community participant interviews were conducted with eleven clinicians and healthcare administrators working in Native communities. Interviews with nine content experts included clinicians and researchers serving AI/AN.
Qualitative content analysis used constant comparative method for coding and generating themes across transcripts. Descriptive statistics were computed from surveys. AI/AN adults access the internet primarily through smartphones, use the internet for many purposes and identify opportunities for online diabetes nutrition education.
Online diabetes nutrition education may be feasible in Indian Country. These findings will inform the development of an eLearning diabetes nutrition education programme for AI/AN adults with T2D.
As self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) remain a pressing public health concern, research continues to focus on risk factors, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Network analysis provides a novel approach to examining the PTSD-SITB relationship. This study utilized the network approach to elucidate how individual PTSD symptoms may drive and maintain SITB.
We estimated cross-sectional networks in two samples of trauma-exposed adults (Sample 1: N = 349 adults; Sample 2: N = 1307 Veterans) to identify PTSD symptoms that may act as bridges to SITB. Additionally, we conducted a cross-lagged panel network in Sample 2 to further clarify the temporal relationship between PTSD symptoms and SITB during a 2-year follow-up. Finally, in both samples, we conducted logistic regressions to examine the utility of PTSD symptoms in prospectively predicting SITB, over a 15-day period (Sample 1) and over a 2-year period (Sample 2), allowing us to examine both short- and long-term prediction.
Two PTSD symptoms (i.e. negative beliefs and risky behaviors) emerged as highly influential on SITB in both cross-sectional networks. In the cross-lagged panel network, distorted blame emerged as highly influential on SITB over time. Finally, risky behaviors, unwanted memories, and psychological distress served as the strongest predictors of SITB across the two samples.
Overall, our results suggest that treatments targeting negative beliefs and risky behaviors may prevent SITB in community and Veteran populations, whereas treatments targeting distorted blame and unwanted memories may help reduce SITB for individuals with a history of combat trauma.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) occur frequently in pediatric inpatients, and they are associated with increased morbidity and cost. Few studies have investigated ambulatory CAUTIs, despite at-risk children utilizing home urinary catheterization. This retrospective cohort and case-control study determined incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of pediatric patients with ambulatory CAUTI.
Broad electronic queries identified potential patients with ambulatory urinary catheters, and direct chart review confirmed catheters and adjudicated whether ambulatory CAUTI occurred. CAUTI definitions included clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Our matched case-control analysis assessed risk factors.
Five urban, academic medical centers, part of the New York City Clinical Data Research Network.
Potential patients were age <22 years who were seen between October 2010 and September 2015.
In total, 3,598 eligible patients were identified; 359 of these used ambulatory catheterization (representing186,616 ambulatory catheter days). Of these, 63 patients (18%) experienced 95 ambulatory CAUTIs. The overall ambulatory CAUTI incidence was 0.51 infections per 1,000 catheter days (1.35 for indwelling catheters and 0.47 for CIC; incidence rate ratio, 2.88). Patients with nonprivate medical insurance (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–6.3) were significantly more likely to have ambulatory CAUTIs in bivariate models but not multivariable models. Also, 45% of ambulatory CAUTI resulted in hospitalization (median duration, 3 days); 5% resulted in intensive care admission; 47% underwent imaging; and 88% were treated with antibiotics.
Pediatric ambulatory CAUTIs occur in 18% of patients with catheters; they are associated with morbidity and healthcare utilization. Ambulatory indwelling catheter CAUTI incidence exceeded national inpatient incidence. Future quality improvement research to reduce these harmful infections is warranted.
Introduction: An increasing number of Canadian paramedic services are creating Community Paramedic programs targeting treatment of long-term care (LTC) patients on-site. We explored the characteristics, clinical course and disposition of LTC patients cared for by paramedics during an emergency call, and the possible impact of Community Paramedic programs. Methods: We completed a health records review of paramedic call reports and emergency department (ED) records between April 1, 2016 and March 31, 2017. We utilized paramedic dispatch data to identify emergency calls originating from LTC centers resulting in transport to one of the two EDs of the Ottawa Hospital. We excluded patients with absent vital signs, a Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) score of 1, and whose transfer to hospital were deferrable or scheduled. We stratified remaining cases by month and selected cases using a random number generator to meet our apriori sample size. We collected data using a piloted standardized form. We used descriptive statistics and categorized patients into groups based on the ED care received and if the treatment received fit into current paramedic medical directives. Results: Characteristics of the 381 included patients were mean age 82.5 years, 58.5% female, 59.7% hypertension, 52.6% dementia and 52.1% cardiovascular disease. On arrival at hospital, 57.7% of patients waited in offload delay for a median time of 45 minutes (IQR 33.5-78.0). We could identify 4 groups: 1) Patients requiring no treatment or diagnostics in the ED (7.9%); 2) Patients receiving ED treatment within current paramedic medical directives and no diagnostics (3.2%); 3) Patients requiring diagnostics or ED care outside current paramedic directives (54.9%); and 4) patients requiring admission (34.1%). Most patients were discharged from the ED (65.6%), and 1.1% died. The main ED diagnoses were infection (18.6%) and musculoskeletal injury (17.9%). Of the patients that required ED care but were discharged, 64.1% required x-rays, 42.1% CT, and 3.4% ultrasound. ED care included intravenous fluids (35.7%), medication (67.5%), antibiotics (29.4%), non-opioid analgesics (29.4%) and opioids (20.7%). Overall, 11.1% of patients didn't need management beyond current paramedic capabilities. Conclusion: Many LTC patients could receive care by paramedics on-site within current medical directives and avoid a transfer to the ED. This group could potentially grow using Community Paramedics with an expanded scope of practice.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) crowding, long waits for care, and paramedic offload delay are of increasing concern. Older adults living in long-term care (LTC) are more likely to utilize the ED and are vulnerable to adverse events. We sought to identify existing programs that seek to avoid ED visits from LTC facilities where allied health professionals are the primary providers of the intervention and, to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Methods: We completed this systematic review based on a protocol we published apriori and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. We systematically searched Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE with terms relating to long-term care, emergency services, hospitalization and allied health personnel. Two investigators independently selected studies and extracted data using a piloted standardized form and evaluated the risk of bias of included studies. We report a narrative synthesis grouped by intervention categories. Results: We reviewed 11,176 abstracts and included 22 studies. Most studies were observational and few assessed patient safety. We found five categories of interventions including: 1) use of advanced practice nursing; 2) a program called Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers (INTERACT); 3) end-of-life care; 4) condition specific interventions; and 5) use of extended care paramedics. Of the 13 studies that reported ED visits, all (100%) reported a decrease, and of the 16/17 that reported hospitalization, 94.1% reported a decrease. Patient adverse events such as functional status and relapse were seldom reported (6/22) as were measures of emergency system function such as crowding/inability of paramedics to transfer care to the ED (1/22). Only 4/22 studies evaluated patient mortality and 3/4 found a non-statistically significant worsening. When measured, studies reported decreased hospital length of stay, more time spent with patients by allied health professionals and cost savings. Conclusion: We found five types of programs/interventions which all demonstrated a decrease in ED visits or hospitalization. Many identified programs focused on improved primary care for patients. Interventions addressing acute care issues such as those provided by community paramedics, patient preferences, and quality of life indicators all deserve more study.
Executive functions (EF) drive health and educational outcomes and therefore are increasingly common treatment targets. Most treatment trials rely on questionnaires to capture meaningful change because ecologically valid, pediatric performance-based EF tasks are lacking. The Executive Function Challenge Task (EFCT) is a standardized, treatment-sensitive, objective measure which assesses flexibility and planning in the context of provocative social interactions, making it a “hot” EF task.
We investigate the structure, reliability, and validity of the EFCT in youth with autism (Autism Spectrum Disorder; n = 129), or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with flexibility problems (n = 93), and typically developing (TD; n = 52) youth.
The EFCT can be coded reliably, has a two-factor structure (flexibility and planning), and adequate internal consistency and consistency across forms. Unlike a traditional performance-based EF task (verbal fluency), it shows significant correlations with parent-reported EF, indicating ecological validity. EFCT performance distinguishes youth with known EF problems from TD youth and is not significantly related to visual pattern recognition, or social communication/understanding in autistic children.
The EFCT demonstrates adequate reliability and validity and may provide developmentally appropriate, treatment-sensitive, and ecologically valid assessment of “hot” EF in youth. It can be administered in controlled settings by masked administrators.
We study star formation and metallicity enrichment histories of 24 massive galaxies at 1.6 < z < 2.5. Deep slitless spectroscopy + imaging data set collected from multiple HST surveys allows robust determination of their SEDs. Our new SED modeling with no functional assumptions on star formation histories revels that 1. most of the sample galaxies have already formed >50% of their extant masses ∼1.5 Gyr before the time of observed redshifts, with a trend where more massive galaxies form earlier, 2. most of our galaxies already have stellar metallicities compatible with those of local early-type galaxies, and 3. inferred metallicities are on average ∼ 0.25 dex higher than observed gas-phase metallicities of star forming galaxies at the time of their formation. Continuation of low-level star formation, rather than abrupt termination of star forming activity, may explain the observed gap of metallicities.
To analyse the incidence of second primary lung cancer following treatment for laryngeal cancer and to identify risk factors for its development.
Retrospective case series.
The five-year actuarial incidence of second primary lung cancer was 8 per cent (1.6 per cent per year). This was associated with a very poor median survival of seven months following diagnosis. Supraglottic tumours were associated with an increased risk of second primary lung cancer compared to glottic tumours in both univariate (hazard ratio = 4.32, p = 0.005) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio = 4.14, p = 0.03).
Second primary lung cancer occurs at a rate of 1.6 per cent per year following a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer, and this is associated in a statistically significant manner with supraglottic primary tumour. The recent National Lung Cancer Screening Trial suggests a survival advantage of 20 per cent at five years with annual screening using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest in a comparable cohort to ours. These findings have the potential to inform post-treatment surveillance protocols in the future.
Ethnic minority groups often have more complex and aversive pathways to mental health care. However, large population-based studies are lacking, particularly regarding involuntary hospitalisation. We sought to examine the risk of involuntary admission among first-generation ethnic minority groups with early psychosis in Ontario, Canada.
Using health administrative data, we constructed a retrospective cohort (2009–2013) of people with first-onset non-affective psychotic disorder aged 16–35 years. This cohort was linked to immigration data to ascertain migrant status and country of birth. We identified the first involuntary admission within 2 years and compared the risk of involuntary admission for first-generation migrant groups to the general population. To control for the role of migrant status, we restricted the sample to first-generation migrants and examined differences by country of birth, comparing risk of involuntary admission among ethnic minority groups to a European reference. We further explored the role of migrant class by adjusting for immigrant vs refugee status within the migrant cohort. We also explored effect modification of migrant class by ethnic minority group.
We identified 15 844 incident cases of psychotic disorder, of whom 19% (n = 3049) were first-generation migrants. Risk of involuntary admission was higher than the general population in five of seven ethnic minority groups. African and Caribbean migrants had the highest risk of involuntary admission (African: risk ratio (RR) = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.34–1.73; Caribbean: RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.37–1.82), and were the only groups where the elevated risk persisted when compared to the European reference group within the migrant cohort (African: RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.04–1.48; Caribbean: RR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.07–1.56). Refugee status was independently associated with involuntary admission (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02–1.32); however, this risk varied by ethnic minority group, with Caribbean refugees having an elevated risk of involuntary admission compared with Caribbean immigrants (RR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.15–2.58).
Our findings are consistent with the international literature showing increased rates of involuntary admission among some ethnic minority groups with early psychosis. Interventions aimed at improving pathways to care could be targeted at these groups to reduce disparities.
In 2017, Hurricane Maria exposed a colonial-era settlement at LaSoye on the Caribbean island of Dominica. Evidence suggests that this was a seventeenth- to eighteenth-century Dutch trading factory built over an earlier Kalinago settlement, and a place of early interaction between Indigenous peoples and Europeans.
To compare risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery between women covered by Medicaid and private health insurance.
Cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid or private insurance and reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and state inpatient discharge databases by hospitals in California (2011–2013).
Deliveries reported to NHSN and state inpatient discharge databases were linked to identify SSIs in the 30 days following cesarean delivery, primary payer, and patient and procedure characteristics. Additional hospital-level characteristics were obtained from public databases. Relative risk of SSI by primary payer primary payer was assessed using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient, procedure, and hospital characteristics, accounting for facility-level clustering.
Of 291,757 cesarean deliveries included, 48% were covered by Medicaid. SSIs were detected following 1,055 deliveries covered by Medicaid (0.75%) and 955 deliveries covered by private insurance (0.63%) (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–1.3; P < .0001). The adjusted odds of SSI following cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.6; P < .0001) times the odds of those covered by private insurance.
In this, the largest and only multicenter study to investigate SSI risk following cesarean delivery by primary payer, Medicaid-insured women had a higher risk of infection than privately insured women. These findings suggest the need to evaluate and better characterize the quality of maternal healthcare for and needs of women covered by Medicaid to inform targeted infection prevention and policy.
Antibiotics are overprescribed for acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs). Guidelines provide criteria to determine which patients should receive antibiotics. We assessed congruence between documentation of ARI diagnostic and treatment practices with guideline recommendations, treatment appropriateness, and outcomes.
A multicenter quality improvement evaluation was conducted in 28 Veterans Affairs facilities. We included visits for pharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchitis, and upper respiratory tract infections (URI-NOS) that occurred during the 2015–2016 winter season. A manual record review identified complicated cases, which were excluded. Data were extracted for visits meeting criteria, followed by analysis of practice patterns, guideline congruence, and outcomes.
Of 5,740 visits, 4,305 met our inclusion criteria: pharyngitis (n = 558), rhinosinusitis (n = 715), bronchitis (n = 1,155), URI-NOS (n = 1,475), or mixed diagnoses (>1 ARI diagnosis) (n = 402). Antibiotics were prescribed in 68% of visits: pharyngitis (69%), rhinosinusitis (89%), bronchitis (86%), URI-NOS (37%), and mixed diagnosis (86%). Streptococcal diagnostic testing was performed in 33% of pharyngitis visits; group A Streptococcus was identified in 3% of visits. Streptococcal tests were ordered less frequently for patients who received antibiotics (28%) than those who did not receive antibiotics 44%; P < .01). Although 68% of visits for rhinosinusitis had documentation of symptoms, only 32% met diagnostic criteria for antibiotics. Overall, 39% of patients with uncomplicated ARIs received appropriate antibiotic management. The proportion of 30-day return visits for ARI care was similar for appropriate (11%) or inappropriate (10%) antibiotic management (P = .22).
Antibiotics were prescribed in most uncomplicated ARI visits, indicating substantial overuse. Practice was frequently discordant with guideline diagnostic and treatment recommendations.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Little is known about potentially obesogenic endocrine-disruptors’ effects on excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR), which increase risk of adverse pregnancy and postnatal outcomes. We explored associations between prenatal organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and increased weight both during and after pregnancy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Three dimethyl (DM) and three diethyl (DE) OP metabolites were measured in spot urine samples collected at <18, 18-25, and >25 gestational weeks among 688 participants in the Generation R Study. Metabolite levels were expressed as molar concentration/gram creatinine and log10-transformed. GWG and PPWR were calculated as the difference between weight at each prenatal/postnatal visit or maximum gestational weight and pre-pregnancy weight. In covariate-adjusted regression models we assessed associations of metabolite concentrations at each prenatal visit and, where appropriate, averaged across pregnancy with early-to-mid pregnancy, mid-to-late pregnancy, late pregnancy-to-maximum, and total GWG; insufficient and excessive GWG according to Institute of Medicine guidelines; and long-term PPWR at 6 and 10 years postpartum. Based on OP pesticides’ lipophilicity and association with hypomethylation, we investigated interactions with pre-pregnancy body mass index, periconceptional folic acid supplementation, and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A 10-fold increase in late pregnancy DE metabolite concentration was associated with 1.34 kg [95% confidence interval: 0.55, 2.12] higher late pregnancy-to-maximum GWG. A 10-fold increase in mean DE metabolite concentration across pregnancy was associated with 2.41 kg [0.62, 4.20] lower PPWR at 6 years. Stratified analysis suggested that the prenatal finding was driven by women with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, while the postnatal finding was driven by women with pre-pregnancy BMI <25 kg/m2 and with inadequate folic acid supplementation. We found no associations between OP pesticide metabolites and insufficient or excessive weight gain and no interaction with breastfeeding. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this longitudinal analysis, we observed a positive association of OP pesticide metabolites with GWG in late pregnancy among overweight/obese women, potentially reflecting inhibition of OP pesticide detoxification by oxidative stress. Postnatally, under/normal weight women with higher OP pesticide metabolites had lower PPWR, possibly due to better metabolic function and a more healthful diet. These results suggest that there may be a critical period during the late phase of pregnancy when OP pesticide exposure may increase GWG, and this association may be amplified in overweight/obese women. Areas for future research include examination of how the interaction between OP pesticides and polymorphisms of the paraoxonase (PON1) gene, which detoxifies OP pesticides, affect GWG/PPWR; exploration of the interplay among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, oxidative stress, and PON1 levels; and characterization of the variability of OP pesticides exposure across pregnancy using more frequent repeated urine samples.
To assess community mental health in suburban Dublin in 2018, 5 years after Ireland’s economic recession ended.
A cross-sectional, face-to-face, household survey was conducted in a random cluster sample of 351 households in Tallaght, a deprived suburb of Dublin.
A majority of respondents (61.3%) reported stress over the previous 12 months, with a higher rate in areas of high (66.9%) compared to lower deprivation (55.5%). Deprivation was not related to rates of loneliness (20.2%), feeling depressed (20.2%), loss of interest (19.7%) or anxiety (22.5%). Mean score for positive mental health (59.3/100, with a higher score indicating better mental health) was lower than that reported in a national sample in 2007 (68/100); positive mental health was associated with not living with a person with chronic illness, self-identifying as ‘non-Irish’ and greater age. Mean score for psychological distress (76.7/100, with a higher score indicating less distress) was also lower than that in 2007 (82/100); less psychological distress was associated with not living with a person with chronic illness or disability, greater age and identifying as non-Irish. The rate of ‘probable mental illness’ over the previous 4 weeks (13.1%) was higher than in 2007 (7%).
Our findings emphasise the high prevalence of stress, especially in deprived suburban areas; the centrality of carer burden in determining mental wellbeing; and associations between positive mental health on the one hand and greater age and identifying as non-Irish on the other.
Culture-based studies, which focus on individual organisms, have implicated stethoscopes as potential vectors of nosocomial bacterial transmission. However, the full bacterial communities that contaminate in-use stethoscopes have not been investigated.
We used bacterial 16S rRNA gene deep-sequencing, analysis, and quantification to profile entire bacterial populations on stethoscopes in use in an intensive care unit (ICU), including practitioner stethoscopes, individual-use patient-room stethoscopes, and clean unused individual-use stethoscopes. Two additional sets of practitioner stethoscopes were sampled before and after cleaning using standardized or practitioner-preferred methods.
Bacterial contamination levels were highest on practitioner stethoscopes, followed by patient-room stethoscopes, whereas clean stethoscopes were indistinguishable from background controls. Bacterial communities on stethoscopes were complex, and community analysis by weighted UniFrac showed that physician and patient-room stethoscopes were indistinguishable and significantly different from clean stethoscopes and background controls. Genera relevant to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) were common on practitioner stethoscopes, among which Staphylococcus was ubiquitous and had the highest relative abundance (6.8%–14% of contaminating bacterial sequences). Other HAI-related genera were also widespread although lower in abundance. Cleaning of practitioner stethoscopes resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial contamination levels, but these levels reached those of clean stethoscopes in only a few cases with either standardized or practitioner-preferred methods, and bacterial community composition did not significantly change.
Stethoscopes used in an ICU carry bacterial DNA reflecting complex microbial communities that include nosocomially important taxa. Commonly used cleaning practices reduce contamination but are only partially successful at modifying or eliminating these communities.