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Closure of spontaneous sphenoid sinus cerebrospinal fluid leaks can be challenging because of the relative inaccessibility of the lateral recess and the presence of intracranial hypertension. We present our experience of such cases and highlight factors associated with a successful outcome.
Eleven patients with spontaneous, laboratory confirmed, sphenoid sinus cerebrospinal fluid leaks were included. All patients underwent endoscopic closure by either a three-layer technique or fat obliteration.
In all but one patient, the leak was successfully sealed (success rate, 90.9 per cent; mean follow up, 37.1 months). Elevated intracranial pressure was measured in eight patients, two of whom did not exhibit relevant clinical or radiological characteristics. Five patients received diuretics and dietary advice for weight reduction. In one patient with recurrence two weeks after repair, successful revision was performed by additional placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (follow up, 67 months).
Long-lasting cerebrospinal fluid fistula sealing in the sphenoid sinus requires stable reconstruction of the defect in three layers or fat obliteration if the anatomy is unfavourable. All patients should be intra- and post-operatively screened for elevated intracranial pressure to identify those who need additional intracranial pressure reduction measures.
To highlight the possibility of pituitary apoplexy after functional endoscopic sinus surgery for elimination of sinonasal infection, an important preparatory step for safe trans-sphenoidal access to the pituitary fossa.
A 67-year-old man with a known pituitary macroadenoma developed headache, diplopia and reduced vision after endoscopic middle meatal antrostomy and ethmoidectomy for rhinosinusitis with polyps. Magnetic resonance imaging showed pituitary haemorrhage. The patient underwent emergency endoscopic trans-sphenoidal resection of the tumour, with significant symptomatic improvement. Despite mild right eyelid ptosis and persistent diabetes insipidus, the patient resumed normal activities in a few weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pituitary apoplexy after a nasal operation.
Pituitary apoplexy is a rare and potentially life-threatening event in high risk patients with pituitary adenomas; it may occur spontaneously or after surgical procedures. Early, combined surgical intervention by rhinologists and neurosurgeons is recommended. The endoscopic trans-sphenoidal approach is a safe and effective technique for the acute management of pituitary apoplexy.
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest malignant tumour of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the paediatric population. Due to its rarity and largely unknown biological behaviour, the treatment of this tumour is complex and controversial. We present the results of multimodality treatment of paediatric sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma, and we explore the role of surgery in the management of this malignancy.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 14 patients (median age 7.5 years) with sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma. Six patients underwent major surgery with post-operative chemoradiation. Eight patients received multi-agent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The mean follow-up time was 58 months (range seven to 276 months).
The five-year overall survival rates for all patients and for the surgery group were 53.9 and 83.3 per cent, respectively. All patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma had a poor prognosis, with a median survival time of 17 months. Intracranial extension and an age greater than 10 years were also associated with an unfavourable outcome. Non- or partial responders to initial chemoradiation died within a year of diagnosis.
Management of paediatric rhabdomyosarcoma requires a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Primary chemoradiotherapy is the established treatment approach for advanced tumours. Early stage tumours with favourable histology can be treated successfully with radical surgery, provided that function and cosmetic appearance are preserved.
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