In order to realize the online allocation of collaborative processing resource of smart workshop in the context of cloud manufacturing, a multi-objective optimization model of workshop collaborative resources (MOM-WCR) was proposed. Considering the optimization objectives of processing time, processing cost, product qualification rate, and resource utilization, MOM-WCR was constructed. Based on the time sequence of workshop processing tasks, the workshop collaborative manufacturing resource was integrated in MOM-WCR. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) was adopted to simplified the multi-objective problem into the single-objective problem. Then, the improved firefly algorithm which integrated the particle swarm algorithm (IFA-PSA) was used to solve MOM-WCR. Finally, a group of connecting rod processing experiments were used to verify the model proposed in this paper. The results show that the model is feasible in the application of workshop-level resource allocation in the context of cloud manufacturing, and the improved firefly algorithm shows good performance in solving the multi-objective resource allocation problem.