Whatever has been achieved in the recent debate regarding religion and politics in America, we have not yet clarified the proper place of religion in our public life. All parties endorse the terse formulation of the first amendment, “congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,” but there is persisting disagreement about the public philosophy which is there implied. Some fear a secularized state, that is, a state which is independent of all religious convictions, and insist that disestablishment does not preclude a foundation of religious values in the Republic. Others fear a state that is religiously partial and insist that the “wall of separation” prescribes civil neutrality toward religion as such. Each side asserts that the other misrepresents its position. The “religionists,” as I will call them, deny that they seek to impose any particular religious conviction; the “separationists,” as I will call them, deny that they are hostile to religion.