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Practice books are often simple 'how to' lists or straightforward 'recipes' and the practitioner still does not know why the activity is related to the outcome they seek. In essence, they lose how the specifics of the practice are related to the theory of change or the theory of how the problem developed in the first place. This leads to practitioners potentially removing crucial elements of best practice procedures when making modifications to tackle new or different problems in an unfamiliar context. By understanding the theoretical underpinnings, practitioners can better plan for adjustments because they know how the outcomes they seek are informed by the theory. Engagingly written and perfect for day-to-day use, this book translates state-of-the-art research and interdisciplinary theory into practical recommendations for those working with children and adolescents.
Chaucer's best-known poem, The Canterbury Tales, is justly celebrated for its richness and variety, both literary - the Tales include fabliaux, romances, sermons, hagiographies, fantasies, satires, treatises, fables and exempla - and thematic, with its explorations of courtly love and scatology, piety and impiety, chivalry and pacifism, fidelity and adultery. Students new to Chaucer will find in this Companion a lively introduction to the poem's diversity, depth, and wonder. Readers returning to the Tales will appreciate the chapters' fresh engagement with the individual tales and their often complicated critical histories, inflected in recent decades by critical approaches attentive to issues of gender, sexuality, class, and language.
International institutions are prevalent in world politics. More than a thousand multilateral treaties are in place just to protect the environment alone, and there are many more. And yet, it is also clear that these institutions do not operate in a void but are enmeshed in larger, highly complex webs of governance arrangements. This compelling book conceptualises these broader structures as the 'architectures' of global governance. Here, over 40 international relations scholars offer an authoritative synthesis of a decade of research on global governance architectures with an empirical focus on protecting the environment and vital earth systems. They investigate the structural intricacies of earth system governance and explain how global architectures enable or hinder individual institutions and their overall effectiveness. The book offers much-needed conceptual clarity about key building blocks and structures of complex governance architectures, charts detailed directions for new research, and provides analytical groundwork for policy reform.This is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance.
Conferences are designed for knowledge translation, but traditional conference evaluations are inadequate. We lack studies that explore alternative metrics to traditional evaluation metrics. We sought to determine how traditional evaluation metrics and Twitter metrics performed using data from a conference of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP).
This study used a retrospective design to compare social media posts and tradition evaluations related to an annual specialty conference. A post (“tweet”) on the social media platform Twitter was included if it associated with a session. We differentiated original and discussion tweets from retweets. We weighted the numbers of tweets and retweets to comprise a novel Twitter Discussion Index. We extracted the speaker score from the conference evaluation. We performed descriptive statistics and correlation analyses.
Of a total of 3,804 tweets, 2,218 (58.3%) were session-specific. Forty-eight percent (48%) of all sessions received tweets (mean = 11.7 tweets; 95% CI of 0 to 57.5; range, 0–401), with a median Twitter Discussion Index score of 8 (interquartile range, 0 to 27). In the 111 standard presentations, 85 had traditional evaluation metrics and 71 received tweets (p > 0.05), while 57 received both. Twenty (20 of 71; 28%) moderated posters and 44% (40 of 92) posters or oral abstracts received tweets without traditional evaluation metrics. We found no significant correlation between Twitter Discussion Index and traditional evaluation metrics (R = 0.087).
We found no correlation between traditional evaluation metrics and Twitter metrics. However, in many sessions with and without traditional evaluation metrics, audience created real-time tweets to disseminate knowledge. Future conference organizers could use Twitter metrics as a complement to traditional evaluation metrics to evaluate knowledge translation and dissemination.
This article examines the case of a Bosnian brother and sister at the center of a diplomatic dispute between Austria and the Ottoman Empire in 1852. Mara Illić had to cross the border into Austria in order to board a ship that would take her to Anatolia with the household of a paşa who had been banished. Milan called upon Austrian authorities to “liberate” Mara, whom he claimed had been enslaved when she was “forced” to convert to Islam as a young child. Austria's defense of its seizure of the girl and the Ottomans' insistence that she be returned reflect tension over sovereignty, jurisdiction, and personhood. The border brings into stark relief the conflict between different ways of conceptualizing categories like freedom and slavery, contract and coercion, confession and nationality.
Pushed by technological, cultural and related political drivers, a ‘new plebiscitary democracy’ is emerging which challenges established electoral democracy as well as variants of deliberative democracy. The new plebiscitary democracy reinvents and radicalizes longer-existing methods (initiative, referendum, recall, primary, petition, poll) with new tools and applications (mostly digital). It comes with a comparatively thin conceptualization of democracy, invoking the bare notion of a demos whose aggregated will is to steer actors and issues in public governance in a straight majoritarian way. In addition to unravelling the reinvented logic of plebiscitary democracy in conceptual terms, this article fleshes out an empirically informed matrix of emerging formats, distinguishing between votations that are ‘political-leader’ and ‘public-issue’ oriented on the one hand, and ‘inside-out’ and ‘outside-in’ initiated on the other hand. Relatedly, it proposes an agenda for systematic research into the various guises, drivers and implications of the new plebiscitary democracy. Finally, it reflects on possible objections to the argumentation.
Neurocognitive impairments robustly predict functional outcome. However, heterogeneity in neurocognition is common within diagnostic groups, and data-driven analyses reveal homogeneous neurocognitive subgroups cutting across diagnostic boundaries.
To determine whether data-driven neurocognitive subgroups of young people with emerging mental disorders are associated with 3-year functional course.
Model-based cluster analysis was applied to neurocognitive test scores across nine domains from 629 young people accessing mental health clinics. Cluster groups were compared on demographic, clinical and substance-use measures. Mixed-effects models explored associations between cluster-group membership and socio-occupational functioning (using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale) over 3 years, adjusted for gender, premorbid IQ, level of education, depressive, positive, negative and manic symptoms, and diagnosis of a primary psychotic disorder.
Cluster analysis of neurocognitive test scores derived three subgroups described as ‘normal range’ (n = 243, 38.6%), ‘intermediate impairment’ (n = 252, 40.1%), and ‘global impairment’ (n = 134, 21.3%). The major mental disorder categories (depressive, anxiety, bipolar, psychotic and other) were represented in each neurocognitive subgroup. The global impairment subgroup had lower functioning for 3 years of follow-up; however, neither the global impairment (B = 0.26, 95% CI −0.67 to 1.20; P = 0.581) or intermediate impairment (B = 0.46, 95% CI −0.26 to 1.19; P = 0.211) subgroups differed from the normal range subgroup in their rate of change in functioning over time.
Neurocognitive impairment may follow a continuum of severity across the major syndrome-based mental disorders, with data-driven neurocognitive subgroups predictive of functional course. Of note, the global impairment subgroup had longstanding functional impairment despite continuing engagement with clinical services.
Birth order has long been thought to have a lasting influence on people’s lives through its effects on social customs and by fostering individual differences in personality and social behavior. Historically, birth order has been linked with well-documented differences in professional opportunities and achievement, emigration patterns, likelihood of reproduction, mortality rates, inheritance practices, and the politics of royal succession (Altus, 1966; Boone, 1986; Bu, 2016; Duby, 1977; Galton, 1874; Herlihy, 1977; Hrdy & Judge, 1993; Sulloway, 1996). An analysis of birth order and the social customs in 39 non-Western societies found that firstborns generally receive more extensive birth ceremonies than do their younger siblings, are allotted special privileges, and, even in adulthood, exert authority over their brothers and sisters (Rosenblaat & Skoogberg, 1974). Additionally, firstborns in these 39 societies received a greater share of parental property than did laterborns.
The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is an important dynamic component for the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet, as it reaches up to the central divide and drains 12% of the ice sheet. The geometric boundary conditions and in particular the nature of the subglacial bed of the NEGIS are essential to understand its ice flow dynamics. We present a record of more than 8000 km of radar survey lines of multi-channel, ultra-wideband radio echo sounding data covering an area of 24 000 km2, centered on the drill site for the East Greenland Ice-core Project (EGRIP), in the upper part of the NEGIS catchment. Our data yield a new detailed model of ice-thickness distribution and basal topography in the region. The enhanced resolution of our bed topography model shows features which we interpret to be caused by erosional activity, potentially over several glacial–interglacial cycles. Off-nadir reflections from the ice–bed interface in the center of the ice stream indicate a streamlined bed with elongated subglacial landforms. Our new bed topography model will help to improve the basal boundary conditions of NEGIS prescribed for ice flow models and thus foster an improved understanding of the ice-dynamic setting.
This chapter focuses on the early fiction of John McGahern, whose first major novel, The Barracks, was published in 1963, the year of Larkin’s ‘Annus Mirabilis’. Reading from this novel and from The Dark, 1965, with overviews too of The Leavetaking and The Pornographer, written in the 1970s, it analyses the transitional energy of Irish writing against the strictures of church and state and the policing of marital, sexual and personal relationships in Ireland. It reads McGahern’s depictions of sexuality and Irish Catholicism in relation to his Irish, British and European contempararies and antecedents. Drawing upon Dáil debates about the ‘outrage’ of McGahern’s controversial first novel as well as editorial discussions that the author himself had with his publishers Faber and Faber, the chapter offers an insight into his relationship with Catholic Ireland and the vestiges of the Irish state’s culture of censorship in the 1960s. In particular, the chapter focusses on his 1979 novel The Pornographer, McGahern’s ‘most experimental novel’, as partially motivated by the settling of scores from the previous decade, but also his ‘fullest novelistic treatment of the sexual instinct and its impact on man’.
Schoenaster carterensis new species, is an asteroid-like ophiuroid (Echinodermata) from Upper Mississippian (Chesterian) shallow-water carbonates in the Ramey Creek Member of the Slade Formation in northeastern Kentucky. First described in the 1860s from Lower and Middle Mississippian rocks, Schoenaster Meek and Worthen, 1860 is not a well-known fossil genus, but the 39 specimens in this collection permitted further definition of the genus and extended its range by ca. 17 Ma into Late Mississippian (Chesterian) time. The number of specimens also permitted differentiation of growth stages based on average arm length and showed that arm length, disk perimeter, and disk area are interrelated in statistically significant ways. Although replaced by chert, the specimens are nearly intact due to rapid burial as rare constituents in habitat communities distributed among four once-contiguous habitats, including shoal, shoal margin, transitional, and basinal. Most of the ophiuroids were concentrated on firm grounds or hardgrounds in shoal and transitional environments, concentrations that probably reflect substratum stability and the ability to support the ophiuroid's generalist feeding strategy. Many fossil ophiuroid species are known from only a few specimens, severely limiting interpretations about their detailed taxonomy, individual variation, and ecology. In contrast, the greater number of specimens and extensive knowledge of geologic occurrence in this study permitted detailed interpretations regarding the taxonomic, intraspecific, and ecologic attributes of this species, which might be useful in the study of other fossil ophiuroids.
Demands on health and social care are growing in quantity and complexity, with resources and staffing not projected to match this. The landmark NHS Long Term Plan calls for services in England to be delivered differently through integrated care systems (ICSs) that will better join commissioners and providers, and health and social care. The scale of these changes is immense, and the detail can feel confusing. However, they are important and will affect all clinicians in the public service. This three-part series provides a primer on integrated care, explaining why it is happening, how services are changing and why clinicians should get involved. In this first article we focus on the changing demographics, and the workforce and financial resources required to address these.
Identifying early risk factors for the development of social anxiety symptoms has important translational implications. Accurately identifying which children are at the highest risk is of critical importance, especially if we can identify risk early in development. We examined continued risk for social anxiety symptoms at the transition to adolescence in a community sample of children (n = 112) that had been observed for high fearfulness at age 2 and tracked for social anxiety symptoms from preschool through age 6. In our previous studies, we found that a pattern of dysregulated fear (DF), characterized by high fear in low threat contexts, predicted social anxiety symptoms at ages 3, 4, 5, and 6 years across two samples. In the current study, we re-evaluated these children at 11–13 years of age by using parent and child reports of social anxiety symptoms, parental monitoring, and peer relationship quality. The scores for DF uniquely predicted adolescents’ social anxiety symptoms beyond the prediction that was made by more proximal measures of behavioral (e.g., kindergarten social withdrawal) and concurrent environmental risk factors (e.g., parental monitoring, peer relationships). Implications for early detection, prevention, and intervention are discussed.
Two standardless quantitative methods for evaluating EDS X-ray spectra were investigated in regards their basic metrics. Both methods have similar total errors, but the error contributions are from different sources. In the P/B-based method, error is more related to counting statistics and therefore can benefit from high count rates achievable with modern silicon drift detectors. To reduce systematic uncertainties in the net-count-based standardless approach, measured values need to be supported by data in a previously measured database. Using the P/B-based method, it is now possible to achieve standardless EDS quantification within ±10% relative deviation from true composition for 95% of results.
The analogy between color and enlivenment has a long prehistory, and it became a popular motif in creation narratives in the early modern period. In the preface to his Lives, Giorgio Vasari tells us that God shaped the first humans from earth because he wanted to demonstrate his mastery in the most imperfect material; he then imbued his raw creation with “the most lively color of flesh” (“colore vivacissimo di carne”).1 Anton Francesco Doni summarizes the story in a telling sequence: “Adam was created and made flesh with varied colors” (“fu fatto Adamo e incarnato con quei variati colori”).2 Francisco de Holanda calls man God’s “animated painting.”3 Part of this creation is, of course, sculptural in nature, but the “liveliness of the eyes, the tone of the skin, the redness of hair [!], and the animation are effects of the power of colors.”4 Also in the sixteenth century, Paolo Pino based his hierarchical ordering of painting and sculpture on the identification of color with life, which explains the higher rank of painting.5 Enlivenment is the decisive criterion of the boundaries that arose, along lines of color, between early modern sculpture and painting. In the later fourteenth and early fifteenth century, oil techniques, first experimentally developed in the north for polychroming sculptures, especially for flesh tones, were gradually withdrawn from statues and reserved for the production of living bodies in painting. As Ann-Sophie Lehmann puts it, “it was as if oil painting was pried from sculpture, in order to awaken life in panel painting.”6
Flexible and stretchable capacitive pressure sensors have been developed in recent years due to their potential applications in health monitoring, robot skins, body activity measurements and so on. In order to enhance sensor sensitivity, researchers have changed structure of the dielectric of parallel plate capacitive sensor . Here we enhance the sensor sensitivities by changing electrode composition and explore the use of a woven electrode structure sensor with silver coated nylon yarn and EcoflexTM. The woven structure enhanced sensitivity 2.3 times relative to a simple cross-grid geometry (sensitivity was 0.003 kPa-1). Furthermore, it is also observed that the sensor with the woven electrode also had better repeatability and showed less creep than a device using carbon black electrodes. The woven structure of the electrodes enabled the device to be compliant, despite the presence of the stiff nylon fibres – thereby enabling good sensitivity without the creep seen in softer electrodes.
Frank Neubacher looks at theories of punishment in international criminal law from a criminologist's perspective. He addresses three interconnected issues: The purpose of punishment, the explanation of international crimes, and sentencing. As regards the former, he is a strong advocate of a combination of different preventive theories as rationale for (international) punishment, but adds elements of restorative justice. Regarding the explanation of international crimes, he distinguishes three levels: the macro-, meso- and micro-level, connected to the system, the group and the individual, respectively. For Neubacher, it is most important to emphasize that collective violence, in which international crimes are being committed, is a situational process. He explains that when it comes to mass atrocities the perpetrator’s behaviour is illegal, but socially not deviant. Finally, as regards the reaction to international crimes, Neubacher explains that for a deterrent effect to ensue, the certainty of punishment is decisive, not the severity. Regarding the sentencing decisions, he sees a disregard of the individual perpetrator’s circumstances and proposes a more nuanced model of liability (and, thus, culpability) which takes into account the hierarchical position of the perpetrators as well as his or her discretional power.