To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised significant concerns for population mental health and the effective provision of mental health services in the light of increased demands and barriers to service delivery . Particular attention is being directed toward the possible neuropsychiatric sequelae of both COVID-19 and of the stringent societal mitigation steps deployed by national governments, concerns that are informed by historical increases in the incidence of psychotic disorders following influenza pandemics . However, so far there has been scant attention paid to other important areas of psychiatry during COVID-19, including medico-legal aspects and human rights. In this paper, we discuss the legal implications for psychiatry of the COVID-19 pandemic and report a novel situation in which psychiatric patients may experience diminution of their statutory protections. We believe that this represents a paradigm shift in psychiatric care and that the consideration of the fundamental rights of psychiatric patients as “less important” than infection control measures compel mental health professionals to “advocate for … patients and their caregivers” in this time of crisis .
In June 2017, an outbreak of Salmonella Kottbus infection was suspected in Germany. We investigated the outbreak with whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and a case–control study. Forty-six isolates from 69 cases were subtyped. Three WGS clusters were identified: cluster 1 (n = 36), cluster 2 (n = 5) and cluster 3 (n = 3). Compared to controls, cluster 1 cases more frequently consumed raw smoked ham (odds ratio (OR) 10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–88) bought at supermarket chain X (OR 36, 95% CI 4–356; 9/10 consumed ham Y). All four cluster 2 cases interviewed had consumed quail eggs. Timely WGS was invaluable in distinguishing concurrent outbreaks of a rare Salmonella serotype.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
This paper presents a W-band MIMO radar transceiver chipset for automotive applications, based on a Silicon Germanium technology. It consists of a reference VCO, operating at a center frequency of 38 GHz and a companion IC that comprises a complete millimeter-wave transceiver at 76 GHz. This chipset enables building multipurpose MIMO radar systems that can be scaled in terms of transmitter and receiver count. What makes this system innovative is the fact that it is able to handle more broadband signals than systems presented in current literature and is furthermore not limited to one modulation scheme. The chipset is capable of transmitting and receiving any signal waveform. The main goal of this work was to create a functional version of a VCO and a one-channel transceiver MMIC. Furthermore a demonstrator for a proof of concept was designed to test the MMICs on a system level. The realized VCO MMIC achieves a tuning frequency range of 6 GHz with a center frequency of 38 GHz and consumes 152 mW from a 3.3 V supply. The transceiver MMIC is fully functional and achieves a saturated output power of 11.5 dBm while drawing 670 mW from a 3.3 V supply.
The release and the speciation of carbon species from irradiated JRQ carbon steel samples, representative of the reactor pressure vessel of Belgian nuclear power plants, were studied in a saturated portlandite aqueous solution, relevant for the Belgian Supercontainer design, as perceived for the geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. To achieve this, we performed simple immersion and potentiostatic corrosion tests. In addition, the corrosion rate (which determines the 14C release) was estimated by measuring the release of 60Co. Gas chromatography showed that during the static corrosion test, the carbonaceous species methane, carbon dioxide, ethene, and ethane were produced. Under the hypothesis that all the carbon released from the JRQ steel was transformed into carbon-base gaseous compounds, this corresponds to a corrosion rate of approximately 100 nm/yr, which is in good agreement with literature data.
The gas release and speciation of carbon species from irradiated and unirradiated Zircaloy-4 samples, representative for the fuel cladding as used in Belgian nuclear power plants, were studied in a saturated Ca(OH)2 solution in anaerobic conditions. This environment is relevant for the Belgian Supercontainer design, as perceived for the geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. To achieve this, we performed simple immersion and potentiostatic corrosion tests. Potentiodynamic polarization curves, recorded prior to the potentiostatic tests, revealed that irradiation seems to induce changes on the Zircaloy-4 corrosion behavior, such as a shift of the corrosion potential. Potentiostatic corrosion tests on unirradiated Zircaloy-4 provided a corrosion rate of ~54 nm/yr over a 7 day-experiment, whilst a corrosion rate of only ~4 nm/yr was calculated for the irradiated sample. Gas chromatography revealed that during simple immersion tests, which lasted 195 days, hydrogen, methane, ethane, and CO2 were produced, with methane being the major compound. Assuming that all carbon released from the metal was transformed into gaseous compounds, this yields to a corrosion rate ranging from 57 to 84 nm/yr for the irradiated sample. However, caution has to be taken on these corrosion rate and more tests should be performed to confirm these results.
Prominent figures are frequently subjected to unwanted and intrusive attentions. Such stalking behaviour is often driven by psychotic illness, angrily blaming the public figure for delusional persecution (resentful motivation), or based on erotomanic delusions (intimacy seeking motivation), for example. This behaviour can cause psychological harm to both perpetrator and victim, and is unlawful. In the rare instances where a public figure has been attacked, the perpetrator has usually had a history of such stalking behaviour and of severe mental illness. For these reasons, early identification and diversion into appropriate care and treatment will be for the benefit of both parties and will prevent more serious violence in a minority of cases. The importance of the provision of education to improve both reporting rates by victims and an appropriate response from the criminal justice system is highlighted. A multi-agency approach involving the criminal justice system and mental health services is the most effective means of achieving these aims.
DECLARATION OF INTEREST
•Learn that severe mental illness, particularly psychosis, is often an important driver of stalking behaviour
•Learn that delusional disorder is a treatable mental illness
•Appreciate that prevention rather than prediction is the approach to managing the risks of high-harm low-probability outcomes.
The historic Waterberg platinum deposit, ~15 km WNW of Mookgophong (formerly Naboomspruit), Limpopo Province, South Africa, is a rare fault-bound hydrothermal vein-type quartz-hematite-platinum-group mineralization. As a continuation of the geochemistry and ore mineralogy studies (Part I, Oberthür et al., 2018), this paper concentrates on the ore-bearing quartz and on the age constraints of ore formation. The state-of-the-art methods used include cathodoluminescence microscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of trace elements, stable isotope (δ18O) analysis and fluid-inclusion studies. U-Pb and (U-Th)/He radiometric age determination gave ages of 900–1075 Ma suggesting platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization as a result of upwelling fluids with connection to the Bushveld complex during Kibaran tectonic movements along the Thabazimbi–Murchison Lineament. Felsic fragments containing Qtz-1 were cemented by different quartz generations (Qtz-2 to Qtz-4) and enable the characterization of the changing physicochemical parameters during multistage mineralization and cooling. The PGE minerals are associated with the earliest hydrothermal stage represented by botryoidal radial-fibrous quartz aggregates (Qtz-2a) which formed on brecciated felsite. The other quartz types are essentially barren. Cathodoluminescence studies of quartz indicate very high Al, Fe and K concentrations as confirmed by EPMA and LA-ICP-MS, whereas Ti is always very low. The varying Al concentrations in the quartz mainly indicate pH fluctuations, the high Fe3+ points at high oxygen fugacity. Micro-inclusions of iron oxide are associated with Pt ore (Fe, Pt, Pd, Au, W, Sb, As), rutile, kaolinite and muscovite. The hydrothermal activity must have been characterized by low saline (<10 wt%) H2O–NaCl solutions. These fluids mixed with original high-saline NaCl ± CaCl2 ± CO2 brines in the brecciated felsite (Qtz-1). According to the quartz-hematite geothermometer the ore depositional temperatures were ~370–330°C (Qtz-2a), whereas the successive quartz veins formed during cooling towards ~295°C. The transport of PGE must have been facilitated by strongly oxidizing chloride complexes of relatively low salinity and moderate acidity.
A study on locally available composts in Austria, Germany, Italy and Switzerland was conducted to investigate the potential of these non-chemical based tools to increase soil health in orchards afflicted by apple replant disease (ARD). A total of 26 different composts (six to seven per country) were chosen for the study. Composts were divided into ten types according to the waste materials used as substrates in the composting process. Growth reduction is the main symptom associated with replant disease; therefore compost performance was evaluated based on the growth responses of apple rootstock plantlets in compost-amended soils in pots. These greenhouse trials were performed in one research station per country, located in an intensive apple-growing area, and soil was taken from an apple orchard affected by replanting disease. Plant growth response was measured as shoot elongation at the end of each greenhouse trial, and results showed increases in growth compared with the respective controls of 2–26% in 20 out of 26 composts evaluated. The heterogeneous nature of the composts most likely attributed to the finding that similar compost types originating from the different countries had varying effects on plant growth. Overall, no significant changes in chemical and biological properties were observed in amended soils as compared with non-amended controls. The high soil resilience was in part expected given the good organic matter content in the original soils (>2%). The bacterial communities of the composts were investigated using the COMPOCHIP microarray, and analyses showed that differences in plant growth response were mainly attributed to the microbial changes introduced into the soil through composts rather than to changes in soil chemical and biological parameters. However, the bacterial communities of composts appeared to be more influenced by geographical origin than by compost type. The results have shown that soil amendment with composts generated from locally produced wastes have the potential to reduce the effects of ARD, although the effects appear to be both compost and soil specific.