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The Appalachian region of the United States is home to the largest temperate deciduous forest in the world, though surface mining has caused significant forest loss. Many former coal mines are now dominated by invasive plants, which often inhibit establishment of desirable species, especially slower-growing native trees. Autumn-olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) is a nonnative, nitrogen-fixing shrub that was historically planted on former coalfields, but now impedes reclamation. To better understand the influence of E. umbellata management practices on hardwood establishment, we evaluated two common management practices: cutting and cut stump herbicide treatment. Planted native tree species, including black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), pin oak (Quercus palustris Münchh.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), were monitored for survival and performance over two growing seasons following E. umbellata removal. In each plot, we also measured plant-available nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) in soils using ionic exchange membranes. At the end of the first growing season, native tree survival was high, and the presence or absence of E. umbellata had little effect on tree survival or growth, despite the higher plant-available nitrate where E. umbellata was present. By the end of the second growing season, native tree survival dropped to 20% to 60% and varied among E. umbellata treatments. Survival was highest when E. umbellata was cut and treated with herbicide, though tree growth was similar across all treatments without E. umbellata. When establishing native trees to replace E. umbellata, cutting and herbicide application treatment of the invader resulted in the highest overall efficacy (100% control), though the most cost-effective method may be to simply cut mature stands despite regrowth, as this resulted in equivalent native tree growth over 2 yr. While this allowed E. umbellata regeneration, it provided sufficient invader control to allow initial tree establishment. Cutting and herbicide application treatment resulted in less E. umbellata regeneration and appears to provide greater assurance that established trees will persist over the long term.
Ice rises play key roles in buttressing the neighbouring ice shelves and potentially provide palaeoclimate proxies from ice cores drilled near their divides. Little is known, however, about their influence on local climate and surface mass balance (SMB). Here we combine 12 years (2001–12) of regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2) output at high horizontal resolution (5.5 km) with recent observations from weather stations, ground-penetrating radar and firn cores in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, to describe climate and SMB variations around ice rises. We demonstrate strong spatial variability of climate and SMB in the vicinity of ice rises, in contrast to flat ice shelves, where they are relatively homogeneous. Despite their higher elevation, ice rises are characterized by higher winter temperatures compared with the flat ice shelf. Ice rises strongly influence SMB patterns, mainly through orographic uplift of moist air on the upwind slopes. Besides precipitation, drifting snow contributes significantly to the ice-rise SMB. The findings reported here may aid in selecting a representative location for ice coring on ice rises, and allow better constraint of local ice-rise as well as regional ice-shelf mass balance.
Ice rises are locally grounded parts of Antarctic ice shelves that play an important role in regulating ice flow from the continent towards the ocean. Because they protrude out of the otherwise horizontal ice shelves, ice rises induce an orographic uplift of the atmospheric flow, resulting in an asymmetric distribution of the surface mass balance (SMB). Here, we combine younger and older internal reflection horizons (IRHs) from radar to quantify this distribution in time and space across Derwael Ice Rise (DIR), Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. We employ two methods depending on the age of the IRHs, i.e. the shallow layer approximation for the younger IRHs near the surface and an optimization technique based on an ice flow model for the older IRHs. We identify an SMB ratio of 2.5 between the flanks and the ice divide with the SMB ranging between 300 and 750 kg m−2 a−1. The SMB maximum is located on the upwind side, ~4 km offset to today's topographic divide. The large-scale asymmetry is consistently observed in time until 1966. The SMB from older IRHs is less-well constrained, but the asymmetry has likely persisted for >ka, indicating that DIR has been a stable features over long time spans.
Since the last meeting of the International Astronomical Union, much attention has been given both in Germany and America to the systematic errors of the fundamental catalogues of Boss and Auwers. This is of special importance if the proper motions of any of the stars are to be used in the verification of the rotation in the plane of the Milky Way. The periodic errors in the proper motions, both in right ascension and declination, are of significance in this connection, while the motion of the equinox is required for the determination of precession, and the systematic correction to the proper motions of declination affects the position of the Solar Apex and the Vertices of the Star Streams.
A circular letter was sent out to all members of the Commission in December 1937, to which the majority have replied. While work is going on steadily in the Observatories where meridian observations are carried out, comparatively few catalogues have been published since 1935. In view of the very full report made three years ago it is only necessary to draw attention to the progress which has been made in the interval.
A retrospective evaluation was undertaken of the clinical and economic effectiveness of three in-patient rehabilitation units across one London National Health Service trust. Information on admission days and costs 2 years before and 2 years after the rehabilitation placement, length of rehabilitation placement and the discharge pathway was collected on 22 service users.
There were statistically significant reductions in hospital admission days in the 2 years following rehabilitation compared with the 2 years before, further reflected in significantly lower bed costs. Longer length of rehabilitation placement was correlated with fewer admission days after the placement. A substantial proportion of the sample went into more independent living, some with no further admissions at follow-up.
The findings suggest that in-patient rehabilitation is both clinically and cost effective: if benefits are sustained they will offset the cost of the rehabilitation placement.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic atrophy is an early feature of many forms of retinal degeneration, providing a challenge to RGC classification. The characterization of these changes is complicated by the possibility that selective labeling of any particular class can confound the estimation of dendritic remodeling. To address this issue we have developed a novel, robust, and quantitative RGC classification based on proximal dendritic features which are resistant to early degeneration. RGCs were labeled through the ballistic delivery of DiO and DiI coated tungsten particles to whole retinal explants of 20 adult Brown Norway rats. RGCs were grouped according to the Sun classification system. A comprehensive set of primary and secondary dendrite features were quantified and a new classification model derived using principal component (PCA) and discriminant analyses, to estimate the likelihood that a cell belonged to any given class. One-hundred and thirty one imaged RGCs were analyzed; according to the Sun classification, 24% (n = 31) were RGCA, 29% (n = 38) RGCB, 32% (n = 42) RGCC, and 15% (n = 20) RGCD. PCA gave a 3 component solution, separating RGCs based on descriptors of soma size and primary dendrite thickness, proximal dendritic field size and dendritic tree asymmetry. The new variables correctly classified 73.3% (n = 74) of RGCs from a training sample and 63.3% (n = 19) from a hold out sample indicating an effective model. Soma and proximal dendritic tree morphological features provide a useful surrogate measurement for the classification of RGCs in disease. While a definitive classification is not possible in every case, the technique provides a useful safeguard against sample bias where the normal criteria for cell classification may not be reliable.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Chapter 17 explores possible transformational pathways of the future global energy system with the overarching aim of assessing the technological feasibility as well as the economic implications of meeting a range of sustainability objectives simultaneously. As such, it aims at the integration across objectives, and thus goes beyond earlier assessments of the future energy system that have mostly focused on either specific topics or single objectives. Specifically, the chapter assesses technical measures, policies, and related costs and benefits for meeting the objectives that were identified in Chapters 2 to 6, including:
providing almost universal access to affordable clean cooking and electricity for the poor;
limiting air pollution and health damages from energy use;
improving energy security throughout the world; and
limiting climate change.
The assessment of future energy pathways in this chapter shows that it is technically possible to achieve improved energy access, air quality, and energy security simultaneously while avoiding dangerous climate change. In fact, a number of alternative combinations of resources, technologies, and policies are found capable of attaining these objectives. From a large ensemble of possible transformations, three distinct groups of pathways (GEA-Supply, GEA-Mix, and GEA-Efficiency) have been identified and analyzed. Within each group, one pathway has been selected as “illustrative” in order to represent alternative evolutions of the energy system toward sustainable development. The pathway groups, together with the illustrative cases, depict salient branching points for policy implementation and highlight different degrees of freedom and different routes to the sustainability objectives.
We discuss existence and lowersemicontinuity for clusters of materials minimising an energy given by a collection of norms φij on the interfaces between regions Ri and Rj. Following Ambrosio and Braides, we exhibit a problem for which the triangle inequality holds but existence fails, and we state a new sufficient condition for lowersemicontinuity, which may be necessary.
Two aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass systems, a lead-cadmium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride and a lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride, doped with different TbF3 concentrations, have been fabricated and investigated. By appropriate heat treatment of the as-prepared glasses above, transparent glass-ceramics (TGC) were obtained. The glass-ceramics contain Tb:Pb(Cd)F2 or Tb:LaF3 nano-crystals in the glass-matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, Raman scattering, and luminescence under both UV and β-particle excitation have been investigated on as-prepared glasses and glass-ceramics. It has been found that the terbium-doped lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass exhibits good UV excited luminescence and β-induced luminescence. The luminescence yield increases for glass-ceramic compared to that of the as-prepared glass. The including of LaF3 in the glass-matrix is beneficial for a higher Tb-doping concentration and a high light yield. The light yield of lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramic is comparable to that of Schott IQI-301 product. However, the terbium-doped lead-cadmium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramic have a detrimental luminescence performance. The lead cations in the glass-matrix may create non-bridging oxygen defects, which are a strong source of charge traps, and correlated to a strong Raman “Boson” peak.
A famous quote attributed to F. M. Dostoevsky notes that “while nothing is easier than to denounce the evil-doer, nothing is more difficult than to understand him.” Terrorism and torture are twin evils that have dominated news headlines in the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. As the former ambassador from Pakistan to the United Nations, Ahmad Kamal, observed, the lines between good and evil become blurred when “terrorists” are often defined on the basis of their success or failure; those who succeed become heroes and even heads of state, whereas those who fail are labeled as terrorists (Kamal, 2002). Likewise, while torture is universally denounced by civilized nations as the dark side of evil, working on that “dark side” was considered “vital” by US Vice President Dick Cheney in responding to terrorist threat (Cheney, 2001). Understanding the architects of terror and torture goes beyond the simple differentiation of “you are either with us or against us” (Bush, 2001), and beyond vilification of those (e.g., multiple Grammy award winners The Dixie Chicks) who dare to cast a self-critical eye on the tensions between our own moral principles and amoral actions. Understanding the evil-doer is difficult, not the least because it also involves looking in the mirror and asking who one is, what one does, and how one is perceived by others. Terrorist acts and torture are not simply “evil”; they have knowable causes. This volume aims to illuminate the terrorism–torture link from multiple, interdisciplinary perspectives.