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The German Twin Family Panel (TwinLife) is a German longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs and their families that was designed to investigate the development of social inequalities over the life course. The study covers an observation period from approximately 2014 to 2023. The target population of the sample are reared-together twins of four different age cohorts that were born in 2009/2010 (cohort 1), in 2003/2004 (cohort 2), in 1997/1998 (cohort 3) and between 1990 and 1993 (cohort 4). In the first wave, the study included data on 4097 twin families. Families were recruited in all parts of Germany so that the sample comprises the whole range of the educational, occupational and income structure. As of 2019, two face-to-face, at-home interviews and two telephone interviews have been conducted. Data from the first home and telephone interviews are already available free of charge as a scientific use-file from the GESIS data archive. This report aims to provide an overview of the study sample and design as well as constructs that are unique in TwinLife in comparison with previous twin studies — such as an assessment of cognitive abilities or information based on the children’s medical records and report cards. In addition, major findings based on the data already released are displayed, and future directions of the study are presented and discussed.
This paper presents a novel approach for the determination of True-Speed-Over-Ground for trains. Speed determination is accomplished by correlating the received signals of two side-looking radar sensors. The theoretically achievable precision is derived. Test measurements are done in two different scenarios to give a proof of concept. Thereafter a series of field measurements is performed to rate the practical suitability of the approach. The results of the measurements are thoroughly evaluated. The test and field measurements are carried out using a 24 GHz frequency modulated continuous wave radar.
This paper presents two modifications of compressive sensing (CS)-based approach applied to the near-field diagnosis of active phased arrays. CS-based antenna array diagnosis allows a significant reduction of measurement time, which is crucial for the characterization of electrically large active antenna arrays, e.g. used in synthetic aperture radar. However, practical implementation of this method is limited by two factors: first, it is sensitive to thermal instabilities of the array under test, and second, excitation reconstruction accuracy strongly depends on the accuracy of the elements of the measurement matrix. First proposed modification allows taking into account of thermal instability of the array by using an iterative ℓ1-minimization procedure. The second modification increases the accuracy of reconstruction using several simple additional measurements.
Computer aided tolerancing (CAT) in the automobile industry is implemented by CAD tools. These tools analyze the manufacturability of complex assemblies with rigid single parts in an early stage to reduce the product development time and the cost for hardware prototypes. This paper proposes an approach to implement tolerance simulation for a compliant assembly, which includes manufacturing processes such as clinching, bolting and hemming by applying tolerance simulation tool. The fender- BIW system is simulated as a compliant–rigid system and the simulation model is applied to two production scenarios. The simulation results are compared with real measurement data, which demonstrates the efficacy of using simulation in early production as opposed to prototyping or other methods of design by showing the strong correlation between simulation results and as-built products.
This paper presents a W-band MIMO radar transceiver chipset for automotive applications, based on a Silicon Germanium technology. It consists of a reference VCO, operating at a center frequency of 38 GHz and a companion IC that comprises a complete millimeter-wave transceiver at 76 GHz. This chipset enables building multipurpose MIMO radar systems that can be scaled in terms of transmitter and receiver count. What makes this system innovative is the fact that it is able to handle more broadband signals than systems presented in current literature and is furthermore not limited to one modulation scheme. The chipset is capable of transmitting and receiving any signal waveform. The main goal of this work was to create a functional version of a VCO and a one-channel transceiver MMIC. Furthermore a demonstrator for a proof of concept was designed to test the MMICs on a system level. The realized VCO MMIC achieves a tuning frequency range of 6 GHz with a center frequency of 38 GHz and consumes 152 mW from a 3.3 V supply. The transceiver MMIC is fully functional and achieves a saturated output power of 11.5 dBm while drawing 670 mW from a 3.3 V supply.
This article presents the configuration and technical specification of the passive radar exploiting third-party transmitters of second-generation digital video broadcasting standard DVB-T2 as illuminators of opportunity. The performance of the two-dimensional (2D) passive radar estimated based on theoretical and experimental study is described. The possible configuration of the 2D non-equidistant antenna array for the three-dimensional (3D) passive radar is proposed to ensure the 3D localization of detected targets. The experimental results on drone detection conducted with the 3D passive radar show that the radar with the 2D antenna array is capable to measure not only azimuth but also elevation and consequently target altitude.
The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of transistor DC operating conditions on GaN power amplifiers’ (PAs) power efficiency and linearity improved by digital predistortion (DPD). The single-ended 10 W (ISM2.45 GHz) and 150 W (3.4/3.6 GHz) GaN HEMT PAs excited by wideband LTE20 E-TM1.1 signal were tested. To check the applicability of the small-signal approach for designing of LTE signals’ PAs, the 150 W PA using transistor model extracted from S-parameters measured at the properly selected operating points was designed. The conventional DPD based on the indirect learning architecture and the memory polynomial model of PA non-linearity was implemented. The results of the research show that in case of class A and B PAs operating up to several dozen watts, an additional improvement in adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) of the order of a few dB only by an increase in the quiescent drain current of PA transistor can be achieved. However, a noticeable ACLR improvement with a coincident increase in power-added efficiency (PAE) can be obtained by choosing the compromise DC operating point and using DPD. In the case of high-PAs, the linearity and efficiency are strongly dependent on the load of a transistor, thus the role of DPD is significantly increased.
We present a novel broadband large-signal vector characterization technique, suitable for high-power broadband Doherty amplifiers (DPAs). It consists of characterizing the DPA three-port sub-circuit composed of the main and peak power devices that are inter-connected by the input network. We discuss a suitable way to extract the three-port X-parameters of a DPA sub-circuit, which is based on a pair of high-power Silicon Laterally Diffused MOSFETs (LDMOSs) for UHF applications. It is then applied to the analysis of a high-power broadband DPA developed on the basis of the same DPA sub-circuit. This technique permits the broadband analysis of the operation of the DPA, as well as to get insight on the load modulation for both the peak and main devices, while they mutually interact through the input network. Measurements and simulated data in the 700–960 MHz bandwidth are compared so as to demonstrate the feasibility of three-port X-parameters characterization for high-power DPAs in UHF band.
The paper is related to an adaptive satellite communication system for data transmission from small, low cost, low Earth orbit satellites. Tests run in a set-up consisting of a number of software-defined radio (SDR) modules operating as a satellite, a ground station, and a satellite channel simulator, have shown that by changing modulation scheme and code rate one can obtain increase of amount of data which can be downloaded from a satellite during a single pass over a ground station approximately by a factor of 2. To determine data rates obtainable in an SDR system using a common personal computer as a digital signal processing device, execution times of particular processing steps involved in the reception process were measured.
This paper describes the development of a power amplifier operating over a 2.4–2.5 GHz frequency range with the output power level more than 15 W and 60% PAE. The transistor applied was the 10 W (13 W Psat) power GaN HEMT (CGH40010F from Wolfspeed) recommended up to 6 GHz. A harmonic tuning method was used to achieve even 30% more output power than the CGH40010 transistor was specified to deliver while maintaining high gain and high efficiency. Furthermore, an accuracy analysis of amplifier design was also conducted. It included validation and correction of the available transistor models as well as validation of the models of microstrip circuits implemented in ADS. Finally, it was concluded that both the mentioned sources of errors contributed at a similar level.
A power MOSFET-based push–pull configuration nanosecond-pulse generator has been designed, constructed, and characterized to permeabilize cells for biological and medical applications. The generator can deliver pulses with durations ranging from 80 ns up to 1 µs and pulse amplitudes up to 1.4 kV. The unit has been tested for in vitro experiments on a medulloblastoma cell line. Following the exposure of cells to 100, 200, and 300 ns electric field pulses, permeabilization tests were carried out, and viability tests were conducted to verify the performance of the generator. The maximum temperature rise of the biological load was also calculated based on Joule heating energy conservation and experimental validation. Our results indicate that the developed device has good capabilities to achieve well-controlled electro-manipulation in vitro.
Low loss, ferroelectric, fully-printed varactors for high-power matching applications are presented. Piezoelectric-induced acoustic resonances reduce the power handling capabilities of these varactors by lowering the Q-factor at the operational frequency of 13.56 MHz. Here, a quality factor of maximum 142 is achieved with an interference-based acoustic suppression approach utilizing double metal–insulator–metal structures. The varactors show a tunability of maximum 34% at 300 W of input power. At a power level of 1 kW, the acoustic suppression technique greatly reduces the dissipated power by 62% from 37 W of a previous design to 14.2 W. At this power level, the varactors remain tunable with maximum 18.2% and 200 V of biasing voltage.
This paper reports on an ultra-wideband low-noise distributed amplifier (LNDA) in a transferred-substrate InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology which exhibits a uniform low-noise characteristic over a large frequency range. To obtain very high bandwidth, a distributed architecture has been chosen with cascode unit gain cells. Each unit cell consists of two cascode-connected transistors with 500 nm emitter length and ft/fmax of ~360/492 GHz, respectively. Due to optimum line-impedance matching, low common-base transistor capacitance, and low collector-current operation, the circuit exhibits a low-noise figure (NF) over a broad frequency range. A 3-dB bandwidth from 40 to 185 GHz is measured, with an NF of 8 dB within the frequency range between 75 and 105 GHz. Moreover, this circuit demonstrates the widest 3-dB bandwidth operation among all reported single-stage amplifiers with a cascode configuration. Additionally, this work has proposed that the noise sources of the InP DHBTs are largely uncorrelated. As a result, a reliable prediction can be done for the NF of ultra-wideband circuits beyond the frequency range of the measurement equipment.
A 6–18 GHz high-power amplifier (HPA) design in GaN on SiC technology is presented. This power amplifier consists of a two-stage corporate amplifier with two and four transistors, respectively. It has been fabricated on UMS using their 0.25 µm gate length process, GH25. A study of the suitable attachment method and measurement on wafer and on jig are detailed. This HPA exhibits an averaged output power of 39.2 dBm with a mean gain of 11 dB in saturation and a 24.5% maximum power added efficiency in pulse mode operation with a duty cycle of 10% with a 25 µs pulse width.
The next generation mobile communication systems impose challenging performance, size, and cost requirements on the power amplifiers (PAs). This paper presents novel DC-biasing circuits, which are compact and yet can control the harmonics almost arbitrarily. The proposed circuit consists of a composite right-/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) stub, of which the size and harmonics-control function can be tuned by modifying the dispersion diagram of the stub line. As a proof of concept, a compact 2-GHz 7-W GaN HEMT class-F PA using the versatile CRLH-TL stubs was fabricated, demonstrating 85.8% drain efficiency and 77.3% power-added efficiency.