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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals are at risk for prolonged hospitalisation after unifocalisation. Feeding problems after congenital heart surgery are associated with longer hospital stay. We sought to determine the impact of baseline, intra-operative, and postoperative factors on the need for feeding tube use at the time of discharge.
We included patients with the aforementioned diagnosis undergoing unifocalisation from ages 3 months to 4 years from 2010 to 2016. We excluded patients with a pre-existing feeding tube. Patients discharged with an enteric tube were included in the feeding tube group. We compared the feeding tube group with the non-feeding-tube group by univariable and multi-variable logistic regression.
Of the 56 patients studied, 41% used tube feeding. Median age and weight z-score were similar in the two groups. A chromosome 22q11 deletion was associated with the need for a feeding tube (22q11 deletion in 39% versus 15%, p=0.05). Median cardiopulmonary bypass time in the feeding tube group was longer (335 versus 244 minutes, p=0.04). Prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation was associated with feeding tube use (48 versus 3%, p=0.001). On multi-variable analysis, prolonged mechanical ventilation was associated with feeding tube use (odds ratio 10.2, 95% confidence intervals 1.6; 63.8).
Among patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals who were feeding by mouth before surgery, prolonged mechanical ventilation after unifocalisation surgery was associated with feeding tube use at discharge. Anticipation of feeding problems in this population and earlier feeding tube placement may reduce hospital length of stay.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
Depression is common and the efficacy of antidepressants is suboptimal. High plasma homocysteine has been consistently associated with depression, and treatment with certain B vitamins demonstrably reduces its concentration.
To determine whether vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid enhance response to antidepressant treatment over 52 weeks.
Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram (20–40 g) together with 0.5mg of vitamin B12, 2mg of folic acid and 25mg of vitamin B6 for 52 weeks (Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: 12609000256279). Participants were community-dwelling adults aged 50 years or over with DSM-IV-TR major depression. We measured severity of symptoms with the Montgomery–åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The primary outcome was remission of the depressive episode after 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes included reduction of MADRS scores over time and relapse of major depression after recovery by week 12.
In total, 153 people were randomised (76 placebo, 77 vitamins). Remission of symptoms was achieved by 78.1 and 79.4% of participants treated with placebo and vitamins by week 12 (P = 0.840), by 76.5 and 85.3% at week 26 and 75.8 and 85.5% at week 52 (effect of intervention over 52 weeks: odds ratio (OR) = 2.49, 95% CI 1.12–5.51). Group differences in MADRS scores over time were not significant (P = 0.739). The risk of subsequent relapse among those who had achieved remission of symptoms at week 12 was lower in the vitamins than placebo group (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.12–0.94).
B vitamins did not increase the 12-week efficacy of antidepressant treatment, but enhanced and sustained antidepressant response over 1 year. Replication of these findings would mandate that treatment guidelines adopt the adjunctive use of B vitamins as a safe and inexpensive strategy to manage major depression in middle-aged and older adults.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.