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Hydrothermal synthesis of ThO2, UxTh1-xO2, and UOx at temperatures between 670°C and 700°C has been demonstrated. Synthesis at these temperatures is 50-80°C below prior growth studies and represents a new lower bound of successful growth. ThO2 single crystals of dimensions 6.49mm x 4.89mm x 3.89 mm and weighing 0.633g have been synthesized at average growth rates near 0.125mm/week. Single crystal UxTh1-xO2 crystals with mole fractions up to x≈0.30 have also been grown. The largest alloyed crystal with mole fraction x≈0.23 has dimensions of 2.97mm x 3.23mm x ∼3mm and recorded average growth rates near 0.2mm/week. Four structures were solved from X-ray diffraction data and their crystallographic data reported here. Rocking curve analysis determined a dislocation density of 1.2×109 cm-2.
The electronic properties of ThO2 single crystals were studied using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results show that the Th 4f core level is in an oxidation state that is consistent with that expected for Th in ThO2. The effective Debye temperature is estimated from the temperature dependent photoemission intensities of the Th 4f core level over the temperature range of 290 to 360 K. A Debye temperature of 468±32 K has been determined.
In this present work we report the growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te doped with In by a modified THM technique. It has been demonstrated that by controlling the microscopically flat growth interface, the size distribution and concentration of Te inclusions can be drastically reduced in the as-grown ingots. This results in as-grown detector-grade CZT by the THM technique. The three-dimensional size distribution and concentrations of Te inclusions/precipitations were studied. The size distributions of the Te precipitations/inclusions were observed to be below the 10-μm range with the total concentration less than 105 cm-3. The relatively low value of Te inclusions/precipitations results in excellent charge transport properties of our as-grown samples. The (μτ)e values for different as-grown samples varied between 6-20 x10-3 cm2/V. The as-grown samples also showed fairly good detector response with resolution of ∼1.5%, 2.7% and about 3.8% at 662 keV for quasi-hemispherical geometry for detector volumes of 0.18 cm3, 1 cm3 and 4.2 cm3, respectively.