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The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
The stomach contents of thresher sharks (Alopias spp.; 162–385 cm total length) were collected from five landing points in northern Peru during 2015. A total of 128 thresher sharks were sampled, with 38 individuals identified as Alopias pelagicus and 90 aggregated to the genus level Alopias sp. to prevent any misidentification. The diet comprised 13 and 10 prey taxa for Alopias sp. and A. pelagicus, respectively. Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas dominated the diet of both groups, with only minor differences in the diet in relation to size classes and location. The diet of Alopias shows a high degree of specialization and the average trophic positions were high for both groups, A. pelagicus (4.4 ± 0.13) and Alopias sp. (4.5 ± 0.14).
With 30 threatened species (14 categorized as Critically Endangered and 16 as Endangered, sensu IUCN), Coccothrinax (c. 54 species) is the flagship palm genus for conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. Coccothrinax has its centre of taxonomic diversity in these islands, with c. 51 endemic species. We present a conservation framework for the 14 Critically Endangered species, found in Cuba, Haiti or the Dominican Republic. Only two species (C. jimenezii, C. montana) occur in more than one country (Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Immediate threats include oil drilling and nickel mining, intrusion of saline water into soil, urban and agricultural development, low population recruitment, uncontrolled fires, interspecific hybridization, and unsustainable ethnobotanical practices. Coccothrinax bermudezii, C. borhidiana, C. crinita ssp. crinita, C. leonis and C. spissa are not conserved in protected areas. Coccothrinax bermudezii, C. jimenezii, C. leonis and C. nipensis are not part of ex situ collections. Based on results from a conservation project targeting C. jimenezii, we recommend international cooperation between the three range states to implement integrative conservation management plans, plant exploration initiatives, taxonomic revisions, outreach, and fundraising. The ultimate aim of this review is to provide baseline information that will develop conservation synergy among relevant parties working on Coccothrinax conservation in Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Such collaborations could also benefit through partnerships with botanists working in other countries.
The study of non-hierarchical forms of social organization occupies a prominent place in the European Iron Age research. This paper explores the application of Pierre Clastres political anthropology to the study of the Iron Age. The approach of this study to the Iron Age focuses on the northwest of the Iberian peninsula. It was an area that experienced social changes from 1000 bc to the first century bc–first century ad, from the Bronze Age to the Roman conquest. Using the archaeological record of the northwest Iberian peninsula as a case study, the paper tries to show the potential benefits of applying Clastres’ ideas to the interpretation of European societies from the Iron Age: overcoming, thanks to the application of the concept of non-coercive power, the false and increasingly frequent image of non-hierarchical societies and introducing new ways of explaining social complexity that are not based on economic criteria.
Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55–80 years) and women (60–80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox’s regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (Pfor trend=0·020) and fruits (Pfor trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.
In 2007, a partnership was initiated between a small-volume paediatric cardiac surgery unit located in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and a large-volume cardiac surgery unit located in Milan, Italy. The main goal of this partnership was to provide surgical treatment to children with CHD in the Canary Islands.
An operative algorithm for performing surgery in elective, urgent, and emergency cases was adopted by the this joint programme. Demographic and in-hospital variables were collected from the medical records of all the patients who had undergone surgical intervention for CHD from January, 2009 to March, 2013. Data were introduced into the congenital database of the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database and the database was interrogated.
In total, 65 surgical mission trips were performed during the period of this study. The European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database documented 214 total patients with a mean age at operation of 36.45 months, 316 procedures in total with 198 cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 46 non-cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 26 cardiovascular cases without cardiopulmonary bypass, 22 miscellaneous other types of cases, 16 interventional cardiology cases, six thoracic cases, one non-cardiac, non-thoracic procedure on a cardiac patient with cardiac anaesthesia, and one extracorporeal membrane oxygenation case. The 30-day mortality was 6.07% (13 patients).
A joint programme between a small-volume centre and a large-volume centre may represent a valid and reproducible model for safe paediatric cardiac surgery in the context of a peripheral region.
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) produces a complex mixture of gases and aerosols from diverse sources, including burning of fossil fuels, biomass, and wastes, with a significant biogenic contribution. We present the first results of ongoing projects to study temporal and spatial variations of 14CO2 in the area. Temporal variations reconstructed from tree rings of Taxodium mucronatum indicate a considerable radiocarbon depletion, in accordance to the vast amount of fossil fuels burnt inside Mexico Valley, with values between 62 and 246‰ lower than background values for the 1962–1968 period, and lower by 51–88‰ for the 1983–2010 period. The lower dilution found for the last decades might indicate an increase in enriched 14CO2 sources. Results from the spatial distribution, as revealed from integrated CO2 samples and grasses from six points within the MCMA collected during the 2013 dry season, show variations between sites and sample types. For integrated CO2 samples, values range from 35.6‰ to 54.0‰, and for grasses between −86.8‰ and 40.7‰. For three of the sampling points, the grasses are significantly depleted, by up to ∼133‰, as compared to the corresponding integrated CO2 sample. This may result from differences in the carbon assimilation period and exposure to different CO2 sources. Higher-than-background Δ14C values were found for all integrated CO2 samples, presumably resulting from 14C-enriched CO2 derived from forest fires in the mountains during the sampling period. Results obtained so far confirm the complexity of the 14C cycle in the MCMA.
This study investigated the effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various aspects of performance in sprint swimmers. In a randomised and counterbalanced order, fourteen male sprint swimmers performed two acute experimental trials after the ingestion of a caffeinated energy drink (3 mg/kg) or after the ingestion of the same energy drink without caffeine (0 mg/kg; placebo). After 60 min of ingestion of the beverages, the swimmers performed a countermovement jump, a maximal handgrip test, a 50 m simulated competition and a 45 s swim at maximal intensity in a swim ergometer. A blood sample was withdrawn 1 min after the completion of the ergometer test. In comparison with the placebo drink, the intake of the caffeinated energy drink increased the height in the countermovement jump (49·4 (sd 5·3) v. 50·9 (sd 5·2) cm, respectively; P<0·05) and maximal force during the handgrip test with the right hand (481 (sd 49) v. 498 (sd 43) N; P<0·05). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the time needed to complete the 50 m simulated swimming competition (27·8 (sd 3·4) v. 27·5 (sd 3·2) s; P<0·05), and it increased peak power (273 (sd 55) v. 303 (sd 49) W; P<0·05) and blood lactate concentration (11·0 (sd 2·0) v. 11·7 (sd 2·1) mm; P<0·05) during the ergometer test. The caffeinated energy drink did not modify the prevalence of insomnia (7 v. 7 %), muscle pain (36 v. 36 %) or headache (0 v. 7 %) during the hours following its ingestion (P>0·05). A caffeinated energy drink increased some aspects of swimming performance in competitive sprinters, whereas the side effects derived from the intake of this beverage were marginal at this dosage.
The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.
The blue and yellow damselfish Chromis limbaughi is a species protected by the Mexican federal government due to its commercial relevance as an aquarium fish. In this paper we present new records of the species at 17 locations north of its accepted northernmost distribution limit. Because of the abundance, relative occurrence, and the presence of adults and juveniles in the new sites, these might represent reproductive populations. It is probable that the species has settled successfully there in recent years by taking advantage of the warming of the region reported in the last decade.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) was created in 2006, under the auspices of the University of Murcia and the regional Health Authority, aiming to develop a research resource in Spain intended to stimulate current research and new investigation on the analysis of genetic factors related to health and health-related behaviors. The MTR development strategy was designed as a step-by-step process. Initially, it was focused on women's health but nowadays it includes males and opposite-sex twins. The database comprises 2,281 participants born between 1940 and 1966 in the region of Murcia, in Spain. There have been three waves of data collection and today the MTR databases include questionnaire and anthropometric data as well as biological samples. The current main areas of research interest are health and health-related behaviors, including lifestyle, health promotion, and quality of life. Future short-term development points to the completion of the biobank and continuing the collection of longitudinal data.
A finite measure supported by the unit sphere 𝕊n−1 in ℝn and absolutely continuous with respect to the natural measure on 𝕊n−1 is entirely determined by the restriction of its Fourier transform to a sphere of radius r if and only 2πr is not a zero of any Bessel function Jd+(n−2)/2 with d a nonnegative integer.
In recent decades, archaeological and historical research on the Iron Age in the north-western Iberian Peninsula, as in many other areas and archaeological contexts, has developed a ‘pacifist’ interpretation. This is based, among other aspects, upon the rejection of the functional nature of the weapons documented in the archaeological record and on the development of a hypothesis on the non-defensive nature of walls, interpreting these structures as a symbol of the community or as an indication of the cohesion of the group living in the settlement. Such an interpretation can be integrated with the idea of a pre- and proto-historic ‘pacified past’ developed after the Second World War, which considered that ‘before civilization, war was rare, ritualised, abnormal and foreign to human psychology’ and with the belief that there has been a evolutionary progression from a primitive to a civilized way of war.
Indium sulphide (In2S3) is a very promising semiconductor material for window layers in solar cell devices. It is currently being investigated for high efficiency solar cell based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-In2S3 heterostructures. The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique is one of the most convenient methods to obtain In2S3 films because of its simplicity, low cost and some other advantages. Amorphous and polycrystalline In2S3 films on glass substrates have been obtained by the CBD technique. Like in many others CBD processes, the deposition mechanism and kinetic growth of In2S3 films on glass substrates is not very well understood [1-6]. In this work we have chemically deposited In2S3 films for different times from 6 up to 39 hours, in order to study by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the formation of the films on glass substrates. The AFM measurements were performed in a liquid medium in which the cantilever tip and the sample are completely immersed in the liquid. A specially designed AFM cell is composed of a tip attached to a circular transparent window, the liquid level is between the upper and lower surface of the window, and a circular meniscus is established around the window, preventing the tip could be affected or destroyed by the surface tension of the liquid. By using this liquid AFM technique, we can at real-time observe the thin film forming process, and thereby clearly reveal the growing mechanism. It is an ideal and more practical tool for in situ investigation of samples which are normally found in liquid environments.
The traditional Mediterranean food pattern is more easily preserved when meals are eaten at home; however, as a result of recent socio-economic changes, away-from-home meal consumption has increased rapidly in Mediterranean countries. Little research has been conducted so far to investigate the long-term health effects of these changes in the Mediterranean area.
In a prospective Spanish dynamic cohort of 9182 university graduates (the SUN Study; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra Follow-up) with a mean age of 37 years, followed up for an average of 4·4 years, we assessed the association between the frequency of eating out of home and weight gain or incident overweight/obesity. Dietary habits were assessed with an FFQ previously validated in Spain.
During follow-up, eating-out consumers (two times or more per week) had higher average adjusted weight gain (+129 g/year, P < 0·001) and higher adjusted risk of gaining 2 kg or more per year (OR = 1·36; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·63) than non-eating-out consumers. Among participants with baseline BMI < 25 kg/m2, we observed 855 new cases of overweight/obesity. Eating away-from-home meals was significantly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (hazard ratio = 1·33; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·57).
A higher frequency of meals eaten out of home may play a role in the current obesity epidemic observed in some Mediterranean countries.
Objectives: The aim of cost-effectiveness analysis is to maximize health benefits from a given budget, taking a societal perspective. Consequently, the comparison of alternative treatments or technologies is solely based on their expected effectiveness and cost. However, the expectation, or mean, poses important limitations as it might be a poor summary of the underlying distribution, for instance when the effectiveness is a categorical variable, or when the distributions of either effectiveness or cost present a high degree of asymmetry. Clinical variables often present these characteristics.
Methods: In this study, we present a framework for cost-effectiveness analysis based on the whole posterior distribution of effectiveness and cost.
Results: An application with real data is included to illustrate the analysis. Decision-making measures such as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, incremental net-benefit, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, can also be defined under the new framework.
Conclusions: This framework overcomes limitations of the mean and offers complementary information for the decision maker.
In this paper we prove that most ropes of arbitrary multiplicity supported on smooth curves can be smoothed. By a rope being smoothable we mean that the rope is the flat limit of a family of smooth, irreducible curves. To construct a smoothing, we connect, on the one hand, deformations of a finite morphism to projective space and, on the other hand, morphisms from a rope to projective space. We also prove a general result of independent interest, namely that finite covers onto smooth irreducible curves embedded in projective space can be deformed to a family of 1:1 maps. We apply our general theory to prove the smoothing of ropes of multiplicity 3 on P1. Even though this paper focuses on ropes of dimension 1, our method yields a general approach to deal with the smoothing of ropes of higher dimension.