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Monocytes and macrophages are critical effectors and regulators of inflammation and innate immune response, which appear altered in different autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies suggested that virgin olive oil (VOO) and particularly its phenol compounds might possess preventive effects on different immune-inflammatory diseases, including SLE. Here, we evaluated the effects of VOO (and sunflower oil) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated peritoneal macrophages from a model of pristane-induced SLE in BALB/c mice, as well as those of the phenol fraction (PF) from VOO on the immune-inflammatory activity and plasticity in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy volunteers. The release of nitrite and inflammatory cytokines was lower in LPS-treated peritoneal macrophages from pristane-SLE mice fed the VOO diet when compared with the sunflower oil diet. PF from VOO similarly decreased the secretion of nitrite and inflammatory cytokines and expression of inducible nitric oxide, PPARγ and Toll-like receptor 4 in LPS-treated human monocytes. PF from VOO also prevented the deregulation of human monocyte subset distribution by LPS and blocked the genetic signature of M1 macrophages while favouring the phenotype of M2 macrophages upon canonical polarisation of naïve human macrophages. For the first time, our study provides several lines of in vivo and in vitro evidence that VOO and PF from VOO target and counteract inflammatory pathways in the monocyte–macrophage lineage of mice with pristane-induced SLE and of healthy subjects, which is a meaningful foundation for further development and application in preclinical and clinical use of PF from VOO in patients with SLE.
In this paper we study holomorphic Legendrian curves in the standard holomorphic contact structure on
. We provide several approximation and desingularization results which enable us to prove general existence theorems, settling some of the open problems in the subject. In particular, we show that every open Riemann surface
admits a proper holomorphic Legendrian embedding
, and we prove that for every compact bordered Riemann surface
there exists a topological embedding
whose restriction to the interior is a complete holomorphic Legendrian embedding
. As a consequence, we infer that every complex contact manifold
carries relatively compact holomorphic Legendrian curves, normalized by any given bordered Riemann surface, which are complete with respect to any Riemannian metric on
The presence of protease inhibitors in different ingredients used in fish feeds may negatively affect their digestive utilisation. The effect of inhibitors present in several protein sources on the activity of digestive proteases of sea bream was assessed using ‘in vitro’ assays. Inhibition produced by extracts of plant proteins ranged from 25 to 50% of total activity, whereas that obtained using animal protein sources ranged from 1 to 20 %. The exception was ovoalbumin, which showed the highest measured value (62 %). A plot of the inhibition values obtained by changing the relative concentrations enzyme/inhibitor resulted in different curves for different protein sources. The use of sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) zymograms allowed visualisation of the aforementioned differences in inhibition. The importance of measuring protease inhibition in the preliminary evaluation of fish feed ingredients is discussed.
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