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Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
PA6 and PMMA polymers with different MWCNTs addition (5, 7 and 9 wt %) were synthetized through casting solution, resulting in improvement properties in contrast to pristine polymers. SEM images showed the MWCNTs embedded into polymeric matrices. D, G and G´ bands of MWCNTs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and functional groups observed in both nanocomposites by FTIR demonstrated a strong interaction. A significant increasing in electrical conductivity and microhardness was observed in all the nanocomposites. Major microhardness values were obtained in MWCNTs/PA6 (50 HV) however the MWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposites showed the highest electrical conductivity value (6.4×10-4 S/cm).
We present results from our ongoing infrared spectroscopic studies of the massive stellar content at the Center of the Milky Way. This region hosts a large number of apparently isolated massive stars as well as three of the most massive resolved young clusters in the Local Group. Our survey seeks to infer the presence of a possible top-heavy recent star formation history and to test massive star formation channels: clusters vs isolation.
This work studies the nitridation of Ta by laser irradiation by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The study has been carried out under “in situ” conditions by controlling the nitrogen partial pressure, the presence of traces of oxygen, and the irradiance of the laser. It is found that a thin layer of Ta2O5 is directly obtained when irradiating in the presence of oxygen, while a Ta3N5 surface compound and some minor contributions of nonstoichiometric phases are formed in the presence of nitrogen. For O2:N2 mixtures at 0.1 Pa, preferential nitride formation occurs up to a ratio of 1:4, while Ta2O5 starts to be predominant for ratios above this value. The air stability of the tantalum nitride layer formed by laser irradiation and the surface topography of the irradiated metal are also studied. The possible factors determining this behavior are discussed.
Relationships between fatty acids (FAs) in plant oils included in goat diets and milk fat C18 isomers were determined by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). The three first principal factors (PF1, PF2 and PF3) accounted for 64·5% of the total variation in milk FAs contents. Fatty acids with a double bond at carbons 13, 14, 15 or 16 had high (>0·6) and positive loadings for PF1, trans-4 to trans-8 C18:1 for PF2, whereas trans-10 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 showed high and positive loadings for PF3. Pearson's correlations supported that PF1, PF2 and PF3 were related to α-linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid intakes, respectively. Our results show that the quantitatively main FAs in plant lipids supplemented to dairy ruminants are often the main cause of the observed changes in milk C18 isomer contents. However, sometimes the observed changes are caused, or at least are influenced, by other FAs present in lower quantities in the plant lipids. Thus, using mixtures of plant oils with differently unsaturated main FAs could be a way of tailoring milk fat composition to a pre-designed pattern.
Recent detection of a large number of apparently isolated massive stars within the inner 80 pc of the Galactic Center has raised fundamental questions regarding massive star formation in a such a dense and harsh environment. Are these isolated stars the results of tidal interactions between clusters, are they escapees from a disrupted cluster, or do they represent a new mode of massive star formation in isolation? Noting that most of the isolated massive stars have spectral analogs in the Quintuplet Cluster, we have undertaken a combined analysis of the infrared spectra of both selected Quintuplet stars and the isolated objects using Gemini North spectroscopy. We present preliminary results, aiming at α-elements vs iron abundances, stellar properties, ages and radial velocities which will differentiate the top-heavy and star-formation scenarios.
The Galactic center (GC) region hosts three of the most massive resolved young clusters in the Local Group and constitutes a test bed for studying the star formation history of the region and inferring the possibility of a top-heavy scenario. Further, recent detection of a large number of apparently isolated massive stars within the inner 80 pc of the Galactic center has raised fundamental questions regarding massive star formation in a such a dense and harsh environment. Noting that most of the isolated massive stars have spectral analogs in the Quintuplet cluster, we have undertaken a combined analysis of the infrared spectra of both selected Quintuplet stars and the isolated objects using Gemini spectroscopy. We present preliminary results, aiming at α-elements versus iron abundances, stellar properties, ages and radial velocities which will differentiate the top-heavy and star-formation scenarios.
The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004–2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work.
Ageing is an important determinant of atherosclerosis development rate, mainly by the creation of a chronic low-grade inflammation. Diet, and particularly its fat content, modulates the inflammatory response in the fasting and postprandial states. Our aim was to study the effects of dietary fat on the expression of genes related to inflammation (NF-κB, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), TNF-α and IL-6) and plaque stability (matrix metalloproteinase 9, MMP-9) during the postprandial state of twenty healthy, elderly people who followed three diets for 3 weeks each: (1) Mediterranean diet (Med Diet) enriched in MUFA with virgin olive oil; (2) SFA-rich diet; and (3) low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet enriched in n-3 PUFA (CHO-PUFA diet) by a randomised crossover design. At the end of each period, after a 12-h fast, the subjects received a breakfast with a composition similar to the one when the dietary period ended. In the fasting state, the Med Diet consumption induced a lower gene expression of the p65 subunit of NF-κB compared with the SFA-rich diet (P = 0·019). The ingestion of the Med Diet induced a lower gene postprandial expression of p65 (P = 0·033), MCP-1 (P = 0·0229) and MMP-9 (P = 0·041) compared with the SFA-rich diet, and a lower gene postprandial expression of p65 (P = 0·027) and TNF-α (P = 0·047) compared with the CHO-PUFA diet. Direct plasma quantification mostly reproduced the findings. Our data suggest that consumption of a Med Diet reduces the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with the SFA-rich and CHO-PUFA diets in elderly people. These findings may be partly responsible for the lower CVD risk found in populations with a high adherence to the Med Diet.
To explore the nature of ferroelectric behavior induced by Pr ion in the SrTiO3 ceramic, we brought together a combination of Synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis. Rietveld analysis shows a clear peak splitting strongly suggesting a cubic-tetragonal structural transition when 15 % Pr substitutes the Sr site. To determine the temperature of the structural instability differential thermal analysis at high temperatures (30-900 °C) and specific heat at low temperatures (2-300 K) were performed. The difference in the heat capacity for Pr doped and undoped samples are very small. A plateau in Cp/T vs T at 110 K is a clear evidence of the competing effect of two kinds of order parameters, one represented by the polarization and the other by the rotation of the oxygen octahedral in the perovskite structure. Upon heating, DTA analysis shows an unexpected single endothermal broad anomaly at about 118 °C. The occurrence of this thermal anomaly could be related to displacive structural contributions providing unambiguous evidence of diffuse phase transition.
The interindividual variation in ApoE plasma concentration is considerable, mainly determined by apoE genotype and sex. However, a large amount of variability remains unexplained by these factors. We have evaluated whether the quantity and quality of dietary fat interacts with the apoE genotype and sex modifying ApoE plasma levels in young healthy subjects. Eighty-four volunteers (sixty-six apoE3/3, eight apoE4/3 and ten apoE3/2) were subjected to three dietary periods, each lasting 4 weeks. The first was a SFA-enriched diet (38 % fat and 20 % SFA), which was followed by a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet (30 % fat, < 10 % SFA and 55 % carbohydrate) or a MUFA-rich diet (38 % fat and 22 % MUFA) following a randomised crossover design. apoE2 carriers have the highest ApoE levels, whereas apoE4 individuals show the lowest concentration after the SFA, CHO and MUFA diets. Women had significantly higher ApoE concentration than men only after the consumption of the SFA diet. The SFA diet increased the ApoE plasma concentration when compared with the CHO- and MUFA-rich diets in women, but not in men. In women, but not in men, the shift from the SFA- to CHO- or MUFA-rich diets significantly decreased the ApoE concentration in apoE3/2 and apoE3/3 subjects, whereas no differences were observed in women with the apoE4/3 genotype. Sex and apoE genotype determine ApoE plasma levels; however, this effect is dependent on dietary fat.
Several apo B polymorphic sites have been studied for their potential use as markers for CHD in the population and for potential gene–diet interactions. Our aim was to determine whether the presence of the -516C/T polymorphism in the APOB gene promoter modifies insulin sensitivity to dietary fat. We studied fifty-nine healthy volunteers (thirty men and twenty-nine women, thirty-six homozygotes for the -516C allele (C/C) (nineteen males and seventeen females) and twenty-three heterozygotes for the -516T allele (C/T) (eleven males and twelve females)). Subjects consumed three diets during the feeding study, 4 weeks each: an SFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 20 % SFA), followed by a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet (30 % fat, 55 % CHO) or a MUFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 22 % MUFA) following a randomised cross-over design. For each diet, we investigated peripheral insulin sensitivity with the insulin suppression test. Male carriers of the -516T allele showed a significantly greater decrease in steady-state plasma glucose concentrations when changing from the SFA-rich diet (9·18 (sd 1·35) mmol/l) to the MUFA (6·55 (sd 0·74) mmol/l) or the CHO (6·31 (sd 0·93) mmol/l) diets than did those who were homozygous for the C allele (P = 0·040). Furthermore, C/T subjects presented higher plasma NEFA values after consumption of the SFA diet compared with the MUFA and CHO diets (P = 0·001). This effect was not observed in females (P = 0·908). Our findings show that male carriers of the -516T allele, C/T, have a significant increase in insulin resistance after consumption of all diets, but the difference is more exaggerated after the SFA diet compared with the MUFA- and CHO-rich diets.
Interest in the Mediterranean diet (MD) has grown worldwide. Despite the high complexity of its nutrients composition, olive oil emerges as its principal food, since it provides the higher percentage of energy and a lot of bioactive compounds.
In this review, we will discuss the benefits of diets enriched in virgin olive oil, whose effects are probably due not only to its oleic acid content but also to its other potentially health-promoting components.
Traditionally, the benefits of MD were linked to its effect on lipoprotein metabolism, but today we realise that there exists a whole sheaf of other benefits, including the components of haemostasis: platelet function, thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis.
A diet enriched in virgin olive oil can reduce the sensitivity of platelets to aggregation, decreasing von Willebrand and thromboxane B2 plasma levels. Moreover, a particular interest has aroused about its capacity to decrease fasting factor VII plasma levels and to avoid or modulate its postprandial activation. In addition, tissue factor expression in mononuclear cells could be reduced with the chronic intake of virgin olive oil, and finally, studies performed in different experimental situation have shown that it could also increase fibrinolytic activity, reducing plasma concentration of plasma activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1).
The MD is an alimentary model with a high content of monounsaturated fats that is capable of inducing a wide range of biological effects on the cardiovascular system. The application of modern focuses of study will dilucidate in the future the biological and clinical interest of these findings.
The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that during refeeding a redistribution of intra-abdominal fat takes place and that both the recovery of weight and the redistribution of intra-abdominal fat are related to the type of dietary fat. The experimental study was carried out using male Sprague–Dawley rats. Three groups of animals were fed diets with three different fatty acid profiles. Each group contained two branches, one fed normally and the other fed initially with a 50 % energy reduction followed by refeeding ad libitum with the same isoenergetic diet as the control branch, giving a total of six treatments. Measurements were made of the final and incremental weight of the rat, weight of the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (total intra-abdominal, epididymal, omental and retroperitoneal adipose tissue weight), and feed efficacy (weight incremen/etabolizable energy intake). Carcass, epididymal, omental, and muscle lipid contents, carcass protein and energy density were also measured. The results revealed that diets rich in fish oil or olive oil increase catch-up growth more than diets rich in saturated fats. During refeeding the lipid content in the adipose tissue increases while that of muscle tissue decreases. A diet rich in saturated fats induces a relative increase in the amount of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. The lipid content in adipose and muscle tissues and the distribution of intra-abdominal fat can all be modified by the type of dietary fat.
Genetic study holds potential for understanding the etiology of a number of serious psychiatric disorders. In the case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), many investigators agree that there is a strong genetic component to its development. In this article, we review the scientific evidence gleaned from different types of studies that has led to a better understanding of the nature of the inherited factors in OCD.
Esta nota pretende ser una primera aproximación a un material estadístico alternativo y complementario a los inventarios notariales post mortem, en los que, fundamentalmente, se han basado hasta ahora aquellos investigadores que se han ocupado de la difusión del libro en la España del siglo XIX. Se trata de los datos mensuales del gasto de timbre de correo publicados mensualmente por la Dirección General de Rentas Estancadas en las páginas de la Gaceta de Madrid entre los años 1850 y 1860. Es una fuente bien conocida y ampliamente utilizada para el estudio de la difusión y las tiradas de la prensa española, y especialmente madrileña, cuyos datos de franqueo se recogen a lo largo de un período mucho más amplio que los referentes a la distributión postal de libros, folletos y otros impresos.
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