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Porungo is a traditional pasta filata cheese produced using raw milk throughout the southwest region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The objectives of this Research Communication were to evaluate the quality of raw milk used to make Porungo cheese, to characterize its production process, and to determine its chemical composition. The results showed that the raw milk met both Brazilian and international quality requirements. Chemically, Porungo can be classified as a medium to full fat semi-hard fresh cheese. Our study has allowed the first standards and regulations for Porungo to be established in Brazil. By virtue of this, the local producers are able to formalize their activity while consumers can have access to a safe and certified product.
Expectant parents who live through perinatal loss experience intense grief, which is not always acknowledged or accepted. A screening tool to detect bereaved parents’ grief reactions can guide professionals, including perinatal palliative care teams, to provide follow-up for those in need. This review's goal is to identify and synthesize the international published literature on existent instruments specifically measuring the grieving process after any perinatal loss and to identify factors that could moderate grief reactions.
Systematic review (PROSPERO # CRD42018092555) with critical synthesis. PUBMED, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases were searched in English language articles using the keywords “perinatal” AND (“grief” OR “bereavement” OR mourning) AND (“scale” OR “questionnaire” OR “measure” OR “assessment”) up to May 2018. Eligibility criteria included every study using a measure to assess perinatal grief after all kinds of perinatal losses, including validations and translations to other languages and interventions designed to alleviate grief symptoms.
A total of 67 papers met inclusion criteria. Seven instruments measuring perinatal grief published between 1984 and 2002 are described. The Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) was used in 53 of the selected studies. Of those, 39 analyzed factors associated with grief reactions. Six articles used PGS scores to evaluate pre- and post-bereavement interventions. Studies in English language only might have limited the number of articles.
Significance of results
The PGS is the most used standardized measures to assess grief after perinatal loss. All parents living through any kind of perinatal loss should be screened.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent mental health condition that is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities and changes in quality of life. Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered the gold standard psychological treatment for PTSD, but treatment resistance and relapse rates are high. Trial-based cognitive therapy (TBCT) is an effective treatment for depression and social anxiety disorder, and its structure seems particularly promising for PTSD. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of TBCT compared to PE in patients with PTSD.
Ninety-five patients (77.6% females) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for PTSD were randomly assigned to receive either TBCT (n = 44) or PE (n = 51). Patients were evaluated before and after treatment, and at follow-up 3 months after treatment. The primary outcome was improvement in PTSD symptoms as assessed by the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS). Secondary outcomes were depression, anxiety, and dysfunctional attitudes assessed by the Beck Depression/Anxiety Inventories and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, as well as the dropout rate.
A significant reduction in DTS scores was observed in both arms, but no significant difference between treatments. Regarding the secondary outcomes, we found significant differences in depressive symptoms in favor of TBCT, and the dropout rate was lower in the TBCT group than the PE group.
Our preliminary results suggest that TBCT may be an effective alternative for treating PTSD. Further research is needed to better understand its role and the mechanisms of change in the treatment of this disorder.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the reliability and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ to assess food group consumption in South American children and adolescents.
The SAYCARE (South American Youth/Child cARdiovascular and Environmental) study is an observational, multicentre, feasibility study performed in a sample of 3- to 18-year-old children and adolescents attending private and public schools from six South American countries. Participants answered the FFQ twice with a two-week interval and three 24-h dietary recalls. Intraclass and Spearman’s correlations, weighted Cohen’s kappa (κw), percentage of agreement and energy-adjusted Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated.
Seven cities in South America (Buenos Aires, Lima, Medelin, Montevideo, Santiago, Sao Paulo and Teresina).
A sample of 200 children and 244 adolescents for reliability analyses and 252 children and 244 adolescents for validity analyses were included.
Depending on the food group, for children and adolescents, reliability analyses resulted in Spearman’s coefficients from 0·47 to 0·73, intraclass correlation coefficients from 0·66 to 0·99, κw coefficients from 0·35 to 0·63, and percentage of agreement between 72·75 and 83·52 %. In the same way, validity analyses resulted in Spearman’s coefficients from 0·17 to 0·37, energy-adjusted Pearson’s coefficients from 0·17 to 0·61, κw coefficients from 0·09 to 0·24, and percentages of agreement between 45·79 and 67·06 %.
The SAYCARE FFQ achieved reasonable reliability and slight-moderate validity for almost all food groups intakes. Accordingly, it can be used for the purpose of ranking the intake of individuals within a population.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
In the present study, TiO2NT coatings grown on simulated body fluid-based electrolyte were investigated as drug delivery devices. Nanotubes (NTs) were grown over commercially pure Ti and Ti6Al4V alloy. Morphology analysis showed that NTs in alloy samples present an inner diameter of 10 nm smaller in average than NTs grown over pure Ti. The surface wettability in water decreased with the anodizing time for both substrates. The application of coatings as drug delivery devices has been studied through the incorporation of ciprofloxacin. To control the drug release, collagen was used as the diffusional barrier. It was observed the drug release follows a Fick’s kinetics. Bioactivity assays showed the absence of hemolytic activity. The concentration of the drug during the release interval remained below the toxic concentration limit, presenting a bacteriostatic activity. All coatings prepared presented a high antibacterial activity, being the area of inhibition of bacterial growth above 13 times the area of the implant.
The aim of this research communication was to identify chromosome regions and genes that could be related to milk yield (MY), milk fat (%F) and protein percentage (%P) in Brazilian buffalo cows using information from genotyped and non-genotyped animals. We used the 90 K Axiom® Buffalo Genotyping array. A repeatability model was used. An iterative process was performed to calculate the weights of markers as a function of the squared effects of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and allele frequencies. The 10 SNPs with the largest effects for MY, %F and %P were studied and they explained 7·48, 9·94 and 6·56% of the genetic variance, respectively. These regions harbor genes with biological functions that could be related to the traits analyzed. The identification of such regions and genes will contribute to a better understanding of their influence on milk production and milk quality traits of buffaloes.
Habitat modification may facilitate the emergence of novel pathogens, and the expansion of agricultural frontiers make domestic animals important sources of pathogen spillover to wild animals. We demonstrate for the first time that Plasmodium juxtanucleare, a widespread parasite from domestic chickens, naturally infects free-living passerines. We sampled 68 wild birds within and at the border of conservation units in central Brazil composed by Cerrado, a highly threatened biome. Seven out of 10 passerines captured in the limits of a protected area with a small farm were infected by P. juxtanucleare as was confirmed by sequencing a fragment of the parasite's cytochrome b. Blood smears from these positive passerines presented trophozoites, meronts and gametocytes compatible with P. juxtanucleare, meaning these birds are competent hosts for this parasite. After these intriguing results, we sampled 30 backyard chickens managed at the area where P. juxtanucleare-infected passerines were captured, revealing one chicken infected by the same parasite lineage. We sequenced the almost complete mitochondrial genome from all positive passerines, revealing that Brazilian and Asian parasites are closely related. P. juxtanucleare can be lethal to non-domestic hosts under captive and rehabilitation conditions, suggesting that this novel spillover may pose a real threat to wild birds.
Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a zoonosis with significant impact both in human and animal health. Understanding the basic processes of parasite biology, especially those related to interactions with its host, will contribute to control F. hepatica infections and hence liver pathology. Mucins have been described as important mediators for parasite establishment within its host, due to their key roles in immune evasion. In F. hepatica, mucin expression is upregulated in the mammalian invasive newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage in comparison with the adult stage. Here, we performed sequencing of mucin cDNAs prepared from NEJ RNA, resulting in six different cDNAs clusters. The differences are due to the presence of a tandem repeated sequence of 66 bp encoded by different exons. Two groups of apomucins one with three and the other with four repeats, with 459 and 393 bp respectively, were identified. These cDNAs have open reading frames encoding Ser-Thr enriched proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide, characteristic of apomucin backbone. We cloned a 4470 bp gene comprising eight exons and seven introns that encodes all the cDNA variants identified in NEJs. By real time polymerase chain reaction and high-resolution melting approaches of individual flukes we infer that fhemuc-1 is a single-copy gene, with at least two different alleles. Our data suggest that both gene polymorphism and alternative splicing might account for apomucin variability in the fhemuc-1 gene that is upregulated in NEJ invasive stage. The relevance of this variation in host–parasite interplay is discussed.
In this study, the growth of LbL film of polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), polyvinyl sulfonic acid (PVS) and glucose oxidase (GOx) in porous anodic alumina substrate (PAA) was accompanied by total reflectance technique. The PAA substrate was synthesized with aluminum anodisation and sample morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
To describe changes in total and central adiposity and body fat distribution in children over a 5-year period by investigating variations in BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and skinfold thicknesses (SFT).
A school-based sample of children from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary schools participated in two cross-sectional studies in 2002 (n 2936) and 2007 (n 1232).
Public and private schools of Florianopolis, Brazil.
Schoolchildren aged 7–10 years had their weight, height, WC and SFT measured according to standard procedures. Body fat distribution was assessed by triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and medial calf skinfold measurements. Changes in BMI, WC, WHtR and SFT were analysed, adjusting for type of school and monthly family income.
Adjusted mean differences between 2002 and 2007 for BMI and WC were always positive and of similar magnitude between boys and girls. However, a statistically significant increase was observed only for BMI (raw and Z-score values) in boys. WHtR remained stable in both sexes. Adjusted median values for SFT also increased in boys and girls, except for triceps skinfold. BMI, WC and SFT tended to increase across age classes in both sexes. The relative change observed for the median central skinfolds (subscapular and suprailiac) was greater than that of peripheral skinfolds (triceps and medial calf).
The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SFT) appeared to increase at a faster rate than total adiposity (BMI). The increase in central SFT indicates that the relative change is due primarily to a rise in central adiposity.
Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are characterized by the capacity to recover a permanent deformation after being heated above a critical temperature called Final Austenite Temperature (Af). The Ni-Ti SMA are the most commercially used, however recent studies showed that the Cu-Al-Mn SMA present significant shape recovery and mechanical properties, showing a strong potential for developing new applications. In this context, the main goal of this work is to manufacture a Cu-Al-Mn SMA through a plasma melting process followed by injection molding of liquid metal and then characterize the samples, using the following techniques: Optical Microscopy (OM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Electrical Resistance as a function of Temperature (ERT) tests, Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and Microhardness (MH).
The Grb14 protein is a member of the Grb7 protein family. This protein family acts by binding to tyrosine kinase receptors, promoting cell proliferation and differentiation. There is evidence of the involvement of tyrosine kinase factors in the bovine oocyte maturation process. However, Grb14 has not been studied for bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs). The aim of the present study was to characterize Grb14 mRNA expression in bovine COCs during follicular development. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of Grb14 mRNA is not regulated by estradiol. mRNA expression of Grb14 was assessed in 480 COCs from follicles of different sizes (1–3, 4–6, 6–8 or >8 mm) by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Grb14 mRNA expression decreased in COCs throughout follicular growth (P < 0.05). The role of estradiol in the expression of Grb14 mRNA in COCs was studied. Grb14 mRNA abundance did not differ in COCs cultured in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol or fulvestrant. In conclusion, we showed that Grb14 mRNA is downregulated in COCs during antral follicle development, a finding that suggests a role for Grb14 in oocyte competence.
The Pirapemas Lineament is a remarkable 200-km-long, NE–SW trending structure in the Barreirinhas Basin, one of the several Brazilian coastal basins. This lineament splits the study area in two sectors of distinctive morphology, drainage patterns, and sedimentary covers. Terrain northward of the lineament presents a smooth topography with sub-parallel to sub-dendritic drainage patterns, whereas a dissected plateau characterized by incised valleys and rectangular drainage pattern occurs southward, suggesting a structural control by joints and faults. Geological field data, crossed with thermal luminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, revealed that the surface southward of the lineament consists mostly of Miocene and late Pleistocene sedimentary deposits, represented by the Barreiras Formation and the Post-Barreiras sediments, respectively. In contrast, relatively younger sands mantle most of the northward terrain, as indicated by well-preserved paleodune deposits that grade into active aeolian dunes of the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park. Geomorphological and geological data analysis suggests that the northern sector is under the effect of subsidence, proving that the Pirapemas Lineament is an active agent modeling the landscape in the region. Geophysical data (gravity and seismic) confirm that such a structural feature is the surface expression of an active deep-seated basement fault.
Brazil's Gini coefficient rose from 0.57 in 1981 to 0.63 in 1989, before falling back to 0.56 in 2004. Poverty incidence rose from 0.30 in 1981 to 0.33 in 1993, before falling to 0.22 in 2004. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the determinants of Brazil's distributional reversal over this period. The rise in inequality in the 1980s appears to have been driven by increases in educational attainment in a context of convex returns, and by high and accelerating inflation. Although the secular decline in inequality, which began in 1993, is associated with declining inflation, it also appears to have been driven by four structural and policy changes, namely, declining returns to education; pronounced rural-urban convergence; increases in social assistance transfers targeted to the poor; and a possible decline in racial inequality. Falling inequality has made a substantial contribution to poverty reduction.
The ibex Capra pyrenaica has recently recolonized its former Portuguese range from a contiguous Spanish protected area. The first observations of ibex in Portugal were in Peneda-Gerês National Park in 1998. In 2001 we began a survey to confirm ibex presence in Portuguese territory, and to determine the current status of the species there. There are three ibex nuclei in the general area of the international border, and they are expanding their geographical range with two of the nuclei almost restricted to Portuguese territory. In 2003 the ibex population consisted of a minimum of 75 individuals. Different founder histories have led to distinct age structures in each nucleus, but in general they exhibit the population dynamics typical of a recently reintroduced population with high reproductive potential. Priority conservation actions for this newly established population need to include increased monitoring, and reinforcement of the population with individuals from elsewhere. Effective conservation will require collaboration between staff of both Portuguese and Spanish protected areas and an integrated Spanish-Portuguese conservation plan.
Endothiella sp. was found associated with witches' broom symptoms of Tibouchina granulosa growing in a stretch of Atlantic rain forest in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fungus was the anamorph of Cryphonectria cubensis the eucalypt canker fungus. Host-range studies were performed involving 40 plant species belonging to 19 families and showed that C. cubensis has a wide potential host-range, concentrated on the Myrtales but including Persea americana (avocado) and Pouteria caimito. These are members respectively of the subclasses Magnoliidae and Dilleniidae, distantly related to plants of the subclass to which both eucalypt and T. granulosa belong (Rosidae). The finding of C. cubensis in balance with a population of a native species at a site isolated and distant from both eucalypt and clove plantations might be regarded as reinforcing the hypothesis of a Neotropical origin for the fungus as opposed to the hypothesis of the fungus being from Oceania and having cloves as its original host. The new alternative hypothesis(of separate origins from endemic hosts in the Neotropics, Africa and Oceania) should nevertheless be also considered.
For a large number of developing countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, the 1980s are remembered not terribly fondly as the decade of debt and ‘structural adjustment’. In many of these countries, the term is closely associated with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. More recently, though, during the ‘emerging markets’ boom of the mid-1990s, structural adjustment – a set of policy reforms aimed at restoring internal and external equilibria to a crisis-hit economy, whilst simultaneously seeking to increase the efficiency with which its productive resources are allocated – seemed consigned to textbooks of the economic history of the 1980s, along with the debt crisis that preceded it.
With the onset of the East Asian, Russian and Brazilian balance of payments crises during 1997–9, however, the topic generated renewed interest. Other chapters in this volume will address the Asian crisis specifically. This chapter looks back at the World Bank's experience with structural adjustment programmes during the 1980s – since the first Structural Adjustment Loan (SAL) was launched in February 1980. We discuss the causes and the nature of the process of adjustment, and consider its main policy components in turn. We also review the evidence on the performance of the programmes during the 1980s. Where appropriate, we draw some lessons for the different – yet related – systemic crises and reforms of the late 1990s.
Section 2 briefly reviews the causes and nature of the processes of stabilisation and structural adjustment in the 1980s.