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Memory and Agency in Ancient China offers a novel perspective on China's material culture. The volume explores the complex 'life histories' of selected objects, whose trajectories as ginle objects ('biographies') and object types ('lineages') cut across both temporal and physical space. The essays, written by a team of international scholars, analyse the objects in an effort to understand how they were shaped by the constraints of their social, political and aesthetic contexts, just as they were also guided by individual preference and capricious memory. They also demonstrate how objects were capable of effecting change. Ranging chronologically from the Neolithic to the present, and spatially from northern to southern mainland China and Taiwan, this book highlights the varied approaches that archaeologists and art historians use when attempting to reconstruct object trajectories. It also showcases the challenges they face, particularly with the unearthing of objects from archaeological contexts that, paradoxically, come to represent the earliest known point of their 'post-recovery lives'.
Evidence regarding the association between adolescent internalising symptoms and school non-completion has been limited and inconclusive.
To examine whether depressive and anxious symptoms at secondary school entry predict school non-completion beyond confounders and whether associations differ by baseline academic functioning.
We used logistic regression to examine associations between depressive and anxious symptoms in grade 7 (age 12–14) and school non-completion (age 18–20) in 4962 adolescents.
Depressive symptoms did not predict school non-completion after adjustment, but moderation analyses revealed an association in students with elevated academic functioning. A curvilinear association was found for anxiety: both low and high anxious symptoms predicted school non-completion, although only low anxiety remained predictive after adjustment.
Associations between internalising symptoms and school non-completion are modest. Common school-based interventions targeting internalising symptoms are unlikely to have a major impact on school non-completion, but may prevent non-completion in selected students.
The three contributions in this section shift the attention to Eurasia's eastern steppes, specifically Mongolia's rich archaeological landscape during the Bronze and Iron Ages (second to first millennium bce). Already by the late nineteenth century, commentators had noted the region's many types of ancient stone-built structures, including slab burials, delineated by flat standing stones; structurally complex – and often massive – khirigsuurs; standing deer stones; and small mounded slope burials. This early archaeological record owes its enduring scholarly appeal not only to the high visibility of its numerous monumental sites, which stand out among Mongolia's treeless valley bottoms and hillsides, but also to the materials and information recovered from the sites themselves. Khirigsuurs and the other types of burials have yielded human and animal remains, while deer stones display enigmatic carved designs of uncertain symbolism. It is fair to say that research on this period of Mongolia's prehistory, including the three chapters in this part, has in some way or other remained tethered to these prominent sites and features.
Other aspects of Mongolia's early archaeological landscape have also generated interest among scholars. Some of the monumental structures seem to make an appearance at approximately the same time at the end of the second millennium bce, signaling the possibility of a significant cultural transformation. All three chapters address, in some way or other, the issue of the emergence and development of this monumental landscape.
The khirigsuurs are large and complex ritual sites that are major features in the landscape of Bronze Age Mongolia and represent considerable investment. The authors present recently investigated examples of this important class of monument, describe their attributes and offer preliminary deductions of the kind of society they imply – and whether it was truly nomadic.