Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is defined as a deterioration in renal function after administration of radiologic iodinated contrast media (CM). Iodixanol, showed a lower CI-AKI incidence than low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM). A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing iodixanol and LOCM in intravenous (IV) setting in Italy.
Methods: A Markov model was developed. Patients moved across four health states: CI-AKI free, CI-AKI, myocardial infarction, and death. The simulation horizon was lifetime with 1-month cycles. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3.5 percent rate. CI-AKI incidence was considered from published literature across different definitions. Cost-effectiveness of iodixanol was assessed in terms of incremental cost per life-year gained. Net monetary benefit (NMB) was also calculated. Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.
Results: Base-case results showed an average survival increase of 0.51 life-years and a savings of €7.25 for iodixanol versus LOCM. The cost-effectiveness of iodixanol was confirmed when other scenarios were explored, such as varying CI-AKI definition, sub-populations with specified risk factors, CM hospital bids prices, and inclusion of adverse drug reactions of allergic nature. An NMB ranging between €6,007.25 and €30,007.25 was calculated.
Conclusion: Base-case results show that IV iodixanol is cost-effective compared with LOCM in the Italian clinical setting of a hospital computed tomography radiology practice. However, some caution is due, mainly linked to inherent limitations of the modeling technique and to the lack of agreement on CI-AKI incidence data in the clinical literature.