To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children’s weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children’s breakfast habits.
A school-based survey among 10–12-year-old children was conducted in eight European countries. Children’s weight and height were measured and breakfast habits and family sociodemographic characteristics were self-reported by 5444 children and their parents. International Obesity Task Force cut-off points were used to categorize children as overweight/obese or normal weight. Mediation analyses were used to test the potential mediating effect of children’s breakfast consumption on the associations between family sociodemographic characteristics and children’s overweight/obesity.
Schools in eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.
Children aged 10–12 years and their parents (n 5444).
Children’s reported daily breakfast consumption varied from 56 % in Slovenia to 92 % in Spain on weekdays and from 79 % in Greece to 93 % in Norway on weekends. Children of native parents, with both parents employed and with at least one parent having more than 14 years of education were more likely to consume breakfast daily and less likely to be overweight/obese. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the association of parental nationality and parental educational status with children’s overweight/obesity was partially mediated by children’s daily breakfast consumption.
The study shows that the lower likelihood of being overweight/obese among 10–12-year-old children of native background and higher parental educational status was partially mediated by children’s daily breakfast consumption.
To investigate meal pattern longitudinally and explore whether meal skipping was associated with overweight among Norwegian children and adolescents.
Longitudinal study. Children's meal frequencies were reported by their parents using a retrospective FFQ. Weight and height were measured by public health nurses. Descriptive data comparing 4th and 7th grade were analysed by paired-sample t tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables. Odds ratio estimates, including confidence intervals, with BMI category (normal/overweight) as the dependent variable, were determined through logistic regression analyses.
Primary schools, Telemark County, Norway.
A cohort of 428 Norwegian boys and girls; 4th graders in 2007, 7th graders in 2010.
The number of children eating four main meals per day (regular meal frequency) decreased from 4th grade (47 %) to 7th grade (38 %; P = 0·001). Those who ate regular meals in 4th grade but not in 7th grade had higher odds (OR = 3·1; 95 % CI 1·1, 9·0) of being overweight in 7th grade after adjusting for gender, maternal education and physical activity, but the odds ratio was not statistically significant after adjusting for overweight in 4th grade (OR = 2·8; 95 % CI 0·7, 11·6).
The present study showed significant increases in overall meal skipping among children between 4th and 7th grade. The results indicate an association between overweight and meal skipping, but additional prospective and longitudinal analyses and intervention trials are warranted to confirm this relationship.
The main objective was to assess the relationship of breakfast skipping, television (TV) viewing at breakfast and breakfast without TV with weight status among parents of 10–12-year-olds in eight European countries.
A cross-sectional survey assessed breakfast eating and TV viewing at breakfast by three frequency questions and parents were categorized into: (i) breakfast skippers; (ii) breakfast with TV (TV watchers at breakfast); and (iii) breakfast without TV (breakfast eaters who do not watch TV during breakfast). Self-reported weight and height were used to categorize weight status as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with weight status as the dependent variable and breakfast habits as predictors, adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education.
The survey was conducted in 2010 in 199 primary schools across eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study.
Parents (n 6512) of 10–12-year-olds responded to the questionnaire.
In the total study sample, with breakfast without TV as the reference group and adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education, the OR of being respectively overweight or obese (compared with normal weight) was 1·2 (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4) or 1·8 (95 % CI 1·5, 2·3) for breakfast skippers. The OR of being respectively underweight or obese was 0·5 (95 % CI 0·2, 0·9) or 1·4 (95 % CI 1·1, 1·8) for breakfast with TV.
Breakfast skippers were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese, and those eating breakfast while watching TV were significantly more likely to be obese and less likely to be underweight.
The present study aimed to analyse changes in meal pattern among Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008 in general; to analyse associations between meal pattern and gender, parental educational level and number of parents in the household; and to analyse the association between intake of unhealthy snacks, meal pattern and the mentioned variables.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, two cross-sectional studies were conducted, one in 2001 and one in 2008, where participants from the same schools filled in a questionnaire on meals eaten the previous day.
Participants were 6th and 7th grade pupils, n 1488 in 2001 and n 1339 in 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
There were no significant changes in children's meal pattern from 2001 to 2008. For both years more than 90 % of the participants reported that they had breakfast yesterday, while 95 % had lunch, 94 % had dinner and 82 % had supper. More girls than boys reported that they had lunch yesterday (96 % v. 94 %, P = 0·03). More children with higher v. lower educated parents reported that they had breakfast yesterday (93 % v. 88 %, P < 0·001). More children living with two parents v. one parent had breakfast (93 % v. 88 %, P = 0·001) and lunch yesterday (97 % v. 93 %, P < 0·001).
There were no changes in meal pattern from 2001 to 2008 among Norwegian children. Characteristics associated with skipping meals were living in a one-parent family and having lower educated parents.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.