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We propose to explain shear-thinning behaviour observed in most concentrated non-Brownian suspensions by variable friction between particles. Considering the low magnitude of the forces experienced by the particles of suspensions under shear flow, it is first argued that rough particles come into solid contact through one or a few asperities. In such a few-asperity elastic–plastic contact, the friction coefficient is expected not to be constant but to decrease with increasing normal load. Simulations based on the force coupling method and including such a load-dependent friction coefficient are performed for various particle volume fractions. The results of the numerical simulations are compared to viscosity measurements carried out on suspensions of polystyrene particles (
in diameter) dispersed in a Newtonian silicon oil. The agreement is shown to be satisfactory. Furthermore, the comparison between the simulations conducted either with a constant or a load-dependent friction coefficient provides a model for the shear-thinning viscosity. In this model the effective friction coefficient
is specified by the effective normal contact force which is simply proportional to the bulk shear stress. As the shear stress increases,
decreases and the jamming volume fraction increases, leading to the reduction of the viscosity. Finally, using this model, we show that it is possible to evaluate the microscopic friction coefficient for each applied shear stress from the rheometric measurements.
This paper focuses on evidence from firewood remains from a Napoleonic camp
located at Étaples (in the north of France), inhabited between 1803 and
1805. The combination of archaeological and relevant historical records
indicates that wood resources, stockpiled for lighting and heating by the
soldiers, may have originated from two distinct areas: the army's official
forest and also the area around the camp, indicating possible difficulties
in wood supply at the end of its occupation. This study, therefore, uses
archaeological charcoal to reinforce military historical sources in
understanding firewood economy and the harsh everyday life of the Napoleonic
soldier at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
The fall velocity of a dense large ball in a suspension of neutrally buoyant non-Brownian particles subjected to horizontal oscillatory shear is studied. As the strain amplitude is increased, the velocity increases up to a maximum value before decreasing to the value that it would have in a resting suspension. The higher the frequency is, the stronger the effect is. The falling ball velocity can be largely increased in the presence of the oscillatory cross-shear flow. For instance, for a particle volume fraction of
it reaches four times the value it has in the unsheared suspension. At small strain amplitudes, it turns out that the velocity of the falling ball is determined by a balance between the steady drag flow, which drives the apparent suspension viscosity toward a high value, and the oscillatory cross-shear, which lessens it. A simple model is proposed to explain the experimental observations at small strain amplitude. The velocity decrease observed at larger amplitude is not completely understood yet.
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