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Aerial application of an herbicide mixture of triclopyr, dicamba, picloram, and aminopyralid is used to control dense infestations of exotic conifers, notably lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon), in New Zealand. The rates of herbicide applied to control these tree weeds has the potential for off-target impacts through persistence in the forest floor, soil, and water. Persistence of three of these herbicides was investigated in cast needles, forest floor (litter, fermented humic layer [LFH]), and soil following their operational aerial application (triclopyr: 18 kg ai ha−1; dicamba: 5 kg ai ha−1; picloram: 2 kg ai ha−1) at three sites across New Zealand (KF, MD, GE) with dense invasions of P. contorta. Water was collected from a local stream at two sites (KF, MD) in the days/months after spraying. Active ingredients detected across all sites in cast needles, LFH, and mineral soil generally reflected their application rates, with total amounts comprising 81% triclopyr, 14% dicamba, and 5% picloram. Most of the active ingredients were detected in the LFH (59%), a heavy lignin-rich layer of dead needles overlaying the soil. All three herbicides persisted in this layer, at all sites, for up to 2 yr (at study termination). Only triclopyr was detected in mineral soil, where it declined to below detection levels (0.2 mg kg−1) within 1 yr. All three herbicides were detected in stream water on the day of spray application at KF, and during a rainfall event 1 mo later. However, amounts did not exceed New Zealand environmental and drinking water standards, an outcome attributed to a 30-m no-spray buffer zone used at this site. At MD, herbicides were detectable in water up to 4 mo after spraying, with amounts exceeding New Zealand drinking water standards on one occasion, 1 mo after spray application. No spray buffer zones were used at the MD site.
To compare people with diabetes developing severe mental illness (SMI) to those with diabetes alone with respect to risk status, diabetes care receipt, and diabetes-relevant outcomes in primary care.
Data from mental health care (Clinical Record Interactive Search; CRIS) linked to primary care (Lambeth DataNet; LDN) were used. From patients with a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis in primary care, those with a new SMI diagnosis were matched (by age, gender, and practice) with up to five randomly selected controls. Mixed models were used to estimate associations with trajectories of recorded HbA1c levels; Poisson regression models compared total and cardiovascular comorbidity levels and number of diabetes complications; linear regression models compared BMI and total cholesterol levels; conditional logistic regression models investigated microalbuminuria, receipt of a foot or retinal examination, use of statins and receipt of insulin; Cox proportional hazards were used to model incident microvascular and macrovascular events, foot morbidity and mortality.
In a cohort of 693 cases with SMI (122 bipolar disorder, 571 schizophrenia and related) and T2DM compared to 3366 controls, all-cause mortality was increased substantially in the cohort with SMI (adjusted hazard ratio 4.52, 95% CI 3.73–5.47; for bipolar 5.59, 3.37–9.28; for schizophrenia 4.42, 3.60–5.44). However, for all the other outcome comparisons, the only significant findings were of reduced foot examination (adjusted odds ratio 0.75, 0.54–0.98) and reduced retinal screening (0.77, 0.61–0.96).
Higher mortality suggests increased risk of adverse outcomes for people with pre-existing T2DM who develop SMI, and reduced foot/retinal examinations suggest disadvantaged healthcare receipt. However, other potential explanations for the mortality difference could not be identified from the outcomes analysed, so further investigation is needed into underlying causal pathways.
Understanding the distribution and extent of suitable habitats is critical for the conservation of endangered and endemic taxa. Such knowledge is limited for many Central African species, including the rare and globally threatened Grey-necked Picathartes Picathartes oreas, one of only two species in the family Picathartidae endemic to the forests of Central Africa. Despite growing concerns about land-use change resulting in fragmentation and loss of forest cover in the region, neither the extent of suitable habitat nor the potential species’ distribution is well known. We combine 339 (new and historical) occurrence records of Grey-necked Picathartes with environmental variables to model the potential global distribution. We used a Maximum Entropy modelling approach that accounted for sampling bias. Our model suggests that Grey-necked Picathartes distribution is strongly associated with steeper slopes and high levels of forest cover, while bioclimatic, vegetation health, and habitat condition variables were all excluded from the final model. We predicted 17,327 km2 of suitable habitat for the species, of which only 2,490 km2 (14.4%) are within protected areas where conservation designations are strictly enforced. These findings show a smaller global distribution of predicted suitable habitat forthe Grey-necked Picathartes than previously thought. This work provides evidence to inform a revision of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List status, and may warrant upgrading the status of the species from “Near Threatened” to “Vulnerable”.
White kidney bean extract (WKBE) is a nutraceutical often advocated as an anti-obesity agent. The main proposed mechanism for these effects is alpha-amylase inhibition, thereby slowing carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Thus, it is possible that WKBE could impact the gut microbiota and modulate gut health. We investigated the effects of supplementing 20 healthy adults with WKBE for 1 week in a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial on the composition of the gut microbiota, gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation (faecal calprotectin), GI symptoms, and stool habits. We conducted in vitro experiments and used a gut model system to explore potential inhibition of alpha-amylase. We gained qualitative insight into participant experiences of using WKBE via focus groups. WKBE supplementation decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and increased that of Firmicutes, however, there were no significant differences in post-intervention gut microbiota measurements between the WKBE and control. There were no significant effects on GI inflammation or symptoms related to constipation, or stool consistency or frequency. Our in vitro and gut model system analyses showed no effects of WKBE on alpha-amylase activity. Our findings suggest that WKBE may modulate the gut microbiota in healthy adults, however, the underlying mechanism is unlikely due to active site inhibition of alpha-amylase.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex mental health condition often associated with previous childhood adversity including maladaptive parenting. When becoming a parent themselves, mothers with BPD have difficulties with various parenting cognitions and practices, but unknown is whether they have appropriate knowledge of sensitive parenting. This study explored whether differences in parenting knowledge or self-efficacy are specific to BPD or also found in mothers with depression, and whether symptom severity or specific diagnosis better explain parenting perceptions. Mothers with BPD (n = 26), depression (n = 25) or HCs (n = 25) completed a Q-sort parenting knowledge task and a parenting self-efficacy questionnaire. Results showed mothers with BPD had the same knowledge of sensitive parenting behaviors as mothers with depression and healthy mothers. Self-reported parenting self-efficacy was lower in mothers with BPD and depression compared with healthy mothers, with symptom severity most strongly associated. A significant but low correlation was found between parenting self-efficacy and knowledge. Findings suggest that mothers with BPD and depression know what good parenting is but think they are not parenting well. Mental health difficulties are not associated with parenting knowledge, but symptom severity appears to be a common pathway to lower parenting self-efficacy. Future interventions should test whether reduction of symptom severity or positive parenting feedback could improve parenting self-efficacy.
Emergency service workers (ESW) are known to be at increased risk of mental disorders but population-level and longitudinal data regarding their risk of suicide are lacking.
Suicide data for 2001–2017 were extracted from the Australian National Coronial Information Service (NCIS) for two occupational groups: ESW (ambulance personnel, fire-fighters and emergency workers, police officers) and individuals employed in all other occupations. Age-standardised suicide rates were calculated and risk of suicide compared using negative binomial regression modelling.
13 800 suicide cases were identified among employed adults (20–69 years) over the study period. The age-standardised suicide rate across all ESW was 14.3 per 100 000 (95% CI 11.0–17.7) compared to 9.8 per 100 000 (95% CI 9.6–9.9) for other occupations. Significant occupational differences in the method of suicide were identified (p < 0.001). There was no evidence for increased risk of suicide among ESW compared to other occupations once age, gender and year of death were accounted for (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.84–1.17; p = 0.95). In contrast, there was a trend for ambulance personnel to be at elevated risk of suicide (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.00–2.00, p = 0.053).
Whilst age-standardised suicide rates among ESW are higher than other occupations, emergency service work was not independently associated with an increased risk of suicide, with the exception of an observed trend in ambulance personnel. Despite an increased focus on ESW mental health and wellbeing over the last two decades, there was no evidence that rates of suicide among ESW are changing over time.
Variation in delineation of target volumes/organs at risk (OARs) is well recognised in radiotherapy and may be reduced by several methods including teaching. We evaluated the impact of teaching on contouring variation for thoracic/pelvic stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) during a virtual contouring workshop.
Materials and methods:
Target volume/OAR contours produced by workshop participants for three cases were evaluated against reference contours using DICE similarity coefficient (DSC) and line domain error (LDE) metrics. Pre- and post-workshop DSC results were compared using Wilcoxon signed ranks test to determine the impact of teaching during the workshop.
Of 50 workshop participants, paired pre- and post-workshop contours were available for 21 (42%), 20 (40%) and 22 (44%) participants for primary lung cancer, pelvic bone metastasis and pelvic node metastasis cases, respectively. Statistically significant improvements post-workshop in median DSC and LDE results were observed for 6 (50%) and 7 (58%) of 12 structures, respectively, although the magnitude of DSC/LDE improvement was modest in most cases. An increase in median DSC post-workshop ≥0·05 was only observed for GTVbone, IGTVlung and SacralPlex, and reduction in median LDE > 1 mm was only observed for GTVbone, CTVbone and SacralPlex. Post-workshop, median DSC values were >0·7 for 75% of structures. For 92% of the structures, post-workshop contours were considered to be acceptable or within acceptable variation following review by the workshop faculty.
This study has demonstrated that virtual SABR contouring training is feasible and was associated with some improvements in contouring variation for multiple target volumes/OARs.
The business and human rights agenda is gaining momentum internationally, perhaps best evidenced through recent legislative responses to tackling modern slavery. Using a reflexive law lens, we analyse three recent laws – the UK Modern Slavery Act 2015, the French ‘duty of vigilance’ law of 2017, and the Australian Modern Slavery Act 2018 (Cth). The three laws, or their accompanying guidance, share characteristics in terms of reporting requirements: the supply chain; risk mapping/assessment and management; analysis of subsidiary and supply chain risk; and effectiveness. The French Act has a broader scope as it is a due diligence, rather than a reporting law and includes obligations with regard to human rights and fundamental freedoms, health and safety, and the environment. It is the only Act of the three with substantive penalty provisions. All reporting requirements in the French and Australian Acts are mandatory, but the UK Act has limited mandatory reporting requirements. We find that only 22 companies globally will be required to report under all three laws. Using a subset of this dataset, we analysed 59 French vigilance plans and UK modern slavery statements published by nine manufacturing companies. This provided some preliminary analysis of how businesses have reported under the French Droit de Vigilance and the UK Modern Slavery Act (reports under the Australian Modern Slavery Act for these companies were not published at time of writing). Overall, businesses are using less demanding measures such as introducing policies and delivering training more commonly than the somewhat more resource-intensive activities such as audits. The more onerous requirements of the French law were reflected in the content and level of detail in the vigilance plans, compared with the UK modern slavery statements. However, for some companies, there were strong similarities between the UK and French publications, indicating ‘creep’ from the French Act into UK reports or a ‘race to the top’.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease and affects about 1% of the population over the age of 60 years in industrialised countries. The aim of this review is to examine nutrition in PD across three domains: dietary intake and the development of PD; whole body metabolism in PD and the effects of PD symptoms and treatment on nutritional status. In most cases, PD is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and although there has been much research in the area, evidence suggests that poor dietary intake is not a risk factor for the development of PD. The evidence about body weight changes in both the prodromal and symptomatic phases of PD is inconclusive and is confounded by many factors. Malnutrition in PD has been documented as has sarcopaenia, although the prevalence of the latter remains uncertain due to a lack of consensus in the definition of sarcopaenia. PD symptoms, including those which are gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal, are known to adversely affect nutritional status. Similarly, PD treatments can cause nausea, vomiting and constipation, all of which can adversely affect nutritional status. Given that the prevalence of PD will increase as the population ages, it is important to understand the interplay between PD, comorbidities and nutritional status. Further research may contribute to the development of interventional strategies to improve symptoms, augment care and importantly, enhance the quality of life for patients living with this complex neurodegenerative disease.
Electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities are greater in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) than in MCI due to Alzheimer’s disease (MCI-AD) and may anticipate the onset of dementia. We aimed to assess whether quantitative EEG (qEEG) slowing would predict a higher annual hazard of dementia in MCI across these etiologies. MCI patients (n = 92) and healthy comparators (n = 31) provided qEEG recording and underwent longitudinal clinical and cognitive follow-up. Associations between qEEG slowing, measured by increased theta/alpha ratio, and clinical progression from MCI to dementia were estimated with a multistate transition model to account for death as a competing risk, while controlling for age, cognitive function, and etiology classified by an expert consensus panel.
Over a mean follow-up of 1.5 years (SD = 0.5), 14 cases of incident dementia and 5 deaths were observed. Increased theta/alpha ratio on qEEG was associated with increased annual hazard of dementia (hazard ratio = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.01–3.35). This extends previous findings that MCI-LB features early functional changes, showing that qEEG slowing may anticipate the onset of dementia in prospectively identified MCI.
It is trust policy that the VTE risk assessment should be completed for every patient admitted to wards. The standard for this audit is therefore 100% completion. We completed the audit in October 2018 and closed the loop in September 2019.
This was a cross-sectional study of all patients on all the wards according to patients’ list on the electronic system (Paris) on certain date. In the first audit we used an audit tool from a similar audit performed in another area in the trust. For the purpose of re- audit we designed an audit tool to reflect the changes made in the electronic form.
In the re-audit, there was noticeable improvement in the completion rate compared to initial audit (95% vs. 82%); however, there was still under-performance. An interesting observation of the re-audit is that 74% percent of admissions had VTE risk assessments forms completed on same day of admission or next day compared to only 45% in previous audit.
When looking at the completion of individual components on the VTE forms there are still some room for improvement as well. For example, in 26% of the patients there was no documentation about the use of prophylactic anticoagulants before admission compared to 34% in our previous audit. Also in 7% of the patients there was no documentation about the outcome of the assessment compared to only 3% in previous audit.
This is an audit to assess the completion of electronic VTE forms as per trust policy. Following the initial audit we made recommendations to improve completion rate. In the re-audit there was an improvement in total completion rate but we have not met the goal of 100% yet.
A possible role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of depression is currently speculative, with more rigorous research needed to assess this association in large adult populations. The current study assesses prospective associations between vitamin D status and depression in middle-aged adults enrolled in the UK Biobank.
We assessed prospective associations between vitamin D status at the baseline assessment (2006–2010) and depression measured at the follow-up assessment (2016) in 139 128 adults registered with the UK Biobank.
Amongst participants with no depression at baseline (n = 127 244), logistic regression revealed that those with vitamin D insufficiency [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07–1.22] and those with vitamin D deficiency (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.13–1.36) were more likely to develop new-onset depression at follow-up compared with those with optimal vitamin D levels after adjustment for a wide range of relevant covariates. Similar prospective associations were reported for those with depression at baseline (n = 11 884) (insufficiency: aOR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.23; deficiency: aOR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.13–1.50).
The prospective associations found between vitamin D status and depression suggest that both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be risk factors for the development of new-onset depression in middle-aged adults. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency (and to a lesser extent insufficiency) might be a predictor of sustained depressive symptoms in those who are already depressed. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is very common, meaning that these findings have significant implications for public health.
Conduct an environmental scan of Marion County (Indianapolis) neighborhoods using electronic medical record data, state health data, and social and economic data
Develop strong network of community collaborators
Conduct a thorough assessment for each targeted neighborhood by listening and understanding the pressing health issues in the community and working together to design and deliver solutions
Identify measures in the 3 domains of vulnerability, health and assets for the targeted neighborhoods and conduct bivariate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression analyses to investigate association between measures of vulnerability and health outcomes.
Initiate relationships with leaders and residents in targeted neighborhoods
Locate organizations working in targeted neighborhoods through online mapping software and word-of-mouth at neighborhood events, and created a spreadsheet with contact information.
Conduct multidisciplinary assessment (i.e. key informant interviews, focus groups, town hall meetings) of the targeted neighborhood.
Iteratively synthesize assessments to develop areas of interest and relevance to the community.
Develop a road map for solutions identified by the community.
RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The results from the environmental scan conducted will be displayed in a report and visual “map” of health outcomes and health determinants, including assets and barriers for the targeted neighborhoods. The research team will use results from the environmental scan coupled with listening activities including attendance at community events, key informant interviews and focus groups to develop relationships and strong collaborations with the targeted neighborhood stakeholders. The relationship building between the research team and community will provide increased trust and engagement that will further enhance the effectiveness of the assessments completed with the targeted neighborhood. The assessments will help to empower communities to develop sustainable solutions and drive future work that will lead to future grant applications and larger-scale implementation in other community impact hub neighborhoods. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Through the community impact hub work, we will develop collaborative efforts with targeted neighborhoods with the greatest health inequities in the Marion County area. In partnership with these neighborhoods, we will build a foundation – a network of community collaborators and a focused plan – upon which we will improve the health outcomes of residents while learning best practices on how to do so.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may gradually worsen to dementia, but often remains stable for extended periods of time. Little is known about the predictors of decline to help explain this variation. We aimed to explore whether this heterogeneous course of MCI may be predicted by the presence of Lewy body (LB) symptoms in a prospectively-recruited longitudinal cohort of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) and Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD).
A prospective cohort (n = 76) aged ⩾60 years underwent detailed assessment after recent MCI diagnosis, and were followed up annually with repeated neuropsychological testing and clinical review of cognitive status and LB symptoms. Latent class mixture modelling identified data-driven sub-groups with distinct trajectories of global cognitive function.
Three distinct trajectories were identified in the full cohort: slow/stable progression (46%), intermediate progressive decline (41%) and a small group with a much faster decline (13%). The presence of LB symptomology, and visual hallucinations in particular, predicted decline v. a stable cognitive trajectory. With time zeroed on study end (death, dementia or withdrawal) where available (n = 39), the same subgroups were identified. Adjustment for baseline functioning obscured the presence of any latent classes, suggesting that baseline function is an important parameter in prospective decline.
These results highlight some potential signals for impending decline in MCI; poorer baseline function and the presence of probable LB symptoms – particularly visual hallucinations. Identifying people with a rapid decline is important but our findings are preliminary given the modest cohort size.
A physical oceanographic, geophysical and marine geological survey of Edward VIII Gulf, Kemp Coast, collected data from conductivity–temperature–depth casts, multi-beam bathymetric swath mapping and 3.5 kHz sub-bottom surveying. Modified circumpolar deep water (mCDW) is observed in Edward VIII Gulf, as well as notable bathymetric features including mega-scale glacial lineations and a 1750 m-deep trough. Sedimentological, geochemical, rock-magnetic and micropalaeontological analysis of two kasten cores document regional palaeoclimate and palaeo-oceanographic conditions over the past 8000 years, with a warm period occurring from c. 8 to 4 ka and a shift to cooler conditions beginning at c. 4 ka and persisting until at least 0.9 ka. Sediment packages > 40 m thick within deep troughs in Edward VIII Gulf present potential targets for higher-resolution Holocene and deglacial climate studies. Despite the presence of mCDW on the shelf, inland bed topography consisting of highland terrain suggests the likelihood of relative stability of this sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Depression is a leading cause of disability, with older people particularly susceptible to poor outcomes.
To investigate whether the prevalence of depression and antidepressant use have changed across two decades in older people.
The Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS I and CFAS II) are two English population-based cohort studies of older people aged ≥65 years, with baseline measurements for each cohort conducted two decades apart (between 1990 and 1993 and between 2008 and 2011). Depression was assessed by the Geriatric Mental State examination and diagnosed with the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy algorithm.
In CFAS I, 7635 people aged ≥65 years were interviewed, of whom 1457 were diagnostically assessed. In CFAS II, 7762 people were interviewed and diagnostically assessed. Age-standardised depression prevalence in CFAS II was 6.8% (95% CI 6.3–7.5%), representing a non-significant decline from CFAS I (risk ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.64–1.07, P = 0.14). At the time of CFAS II, 10.7% of the population (95% CI 10.0–11.5%) were taking antidepressant medication, more than twice that of CFAS I (risk ratio 2.79, 95% CI 1.96–3.97, P < 0.0001). Among care home residents, depression prevalence was unchanged, but the use of antidepressants increased from 7.4% (95% CI 3.8–13.8%) to 29.2% (95% CI 22.6–36.7%).
A substantial increase in the proportion of the population reporting taking antidepressant medication is seen across two decades for people aged ≥65 years. However there was no evidence for a change in age-specific prevalence of depression.
In 1969 on a riverside near the Lenyardi caves (about 5 kilometres from present-day Junnar, in the Indian state of Maharashtra), Dr Satish Deshmukh discovered an alabaster object in the form of half an egg (longitudinally cut) with a young male child lying inside it (with small traces of red paint on the right side of the object). This high-quality oval object (figures 1 and 2) measures about 5 cm × 3.4 cm and is usually interpreted as an item that was originally manufactured in the Mediterranean world before being brought to India, rather than a piece of artwork produced in India itself. One possible, and largely accepted, interpretation is that this figure represents the birth of the god Eros. However, identification of the figure within the egg-like structure is not easily made. While the figure does bear similarities to the putto-style representation of Eros in instances of Greek and Roman art, it does not possess any clear identifying features (such as the wings with which Eros is often depicted). The figure's resemblance to Eros in some of his other iconographic depictions and the egg-like structure around him suggest a possible identification of this infant with Eros and the myth of his birth from an egg. However, without evidence from other iconography of a more clearly identifiable Eros in similar contexts, the figure cannot be said to be him with any certainty. As Dhavalikar notes, this object ‘is the only one of its kind among the classical antiquities so far found in the Indian subcontinent and perhaps has no parallel in the classical world’. Thus the identification of this sculpture as a depiction of Eros in the egg is possible, but not certain.
A study to detect the diversity of endophytic Actinobacteria from Australian rice was conducted using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Rice samples were collected from the rice growing area near Yanco, New South Wales, Australia. Isolation of the endophytic Actinobacteria was done over two consecutive growing seasons. The results demonstrated that most isolates were obtained from plants 10 weeks and older, and only a few were found in younger plants. Microbispora spp. were the most commonly isolated endophytic Actinobacteria (94%) with Streptomyces spp. and other genera present at lower numbers (6%). The culture-dependent method findings were confirmed by T-RFLP profile analysis. Restriction digests using HhaI and RsaI also showed an abundance of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) profiles related to the genus Microbispora. Furthermore, other biological properties of the endophytic Actinobacteria isolates were also determined. Four isolates, Saccharothrix OSH21, Saccharopolyspora OSR26, Streptomyces OSR46 and Microbispora OSR61, were found to suppress the growth of the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, these isolates might be able to promote plant growth by producing indole acetic acid or to solubilise phosphate making this nutrient available for plant uptake.