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Although legumes are rich in protein and fibre, and low in saturated fat and Na, traditional legume-based recipes include substantial amounts of processed meat, salt and potatoes, which could counteract the potential benefits of legumes. This prospective study aimed to assess the longitudinal association of consumption of different types of legumes, and traditional legume-based recipes, with unhealthy ageing in older adults. Data were taken from 2505 individuals aged ≥60 years from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. Habitual legume consumption was assessed in 2008–2010 with a validated diet history. Unhealthy ageing was measured in the 2013, 2015 and 2017 follow-up waves, with a fifty-two-item multidimensional health deficit accumulation index (DAI) which ranges from 0 (best) to 100 (worst health). The mean age was 68·7 years, with 53·1 % of women. Among study participants, 78·4 % reported consumption of legumes, with a mean intake of 57·9 g/d. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models did not show an association between total legume consumption and the DAI over a 7-year follow-up (non-standardised coefficient for the second and highest v. the lowest tertile of consumption: 0·94 (95 % CI −0·30, 2·17) and 0·18 (95 % CI −1·07, 1·43), respectively; Ptrend = 0·35). Similar results were observed for the 3-year and 5-year follow-ups and, separately, for lentils, beans, chickpeas and traditional legume-based recipes. According to the results obtained, consumption of legumes and traditional legume-based recipes is not associated with unhealthy ageing and can be part of a healthy diet in old age.
Costa Rica is near malaria elimination. This achievement has followed shifts in malaria health policy. Here, we evaluate the impacts that different health policies have had on malaria transmission in Costa Rica from 1913 to 2018. We identified regime shifts and used regression models to measure the impact of different health policies on malaria transmission in Costa Rica using annual case records. We found that vector control and prophylactic treatments were associated with a 50% malaria case reduction in 1929–1931 compared with 1913–1928. DDT introduction in 1946 was associated with an increase in annual malaria case reduction from 7.6% (1942–1946) to 26.4% (1947–1952). The 2006 introduction of 7-day supervised chloroquine and primaquine treatments was the most effective health policy between 1957 and 2018, reducing annual malaria cases by 98% (2009–2018) when compared with 1957–1968. We also found that effective malaria reduction policies have been sensitive to natural catastrophes and extreme climatic events, both of which have increased malaria transmission in Costa Rica. Currently, outbreaks follow malaria importation into vulnerable areas of Costa Rica. This highlights the need to timely diagnose and treat malaria, while improving living standards, in the affected areas.
To assess antipsychotic medication in the treatment of schizophrenia, based on trial drop-out rates.
The studies included were randomised controlled trials that compared any of the four clinically best-established atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone or clozapine) against either of two typical antipsychotics regarded as the gold standard (haloperidol or chlorpromazine).
Meta-analysis indicated less risk of all-cause patient withdrawal from atypical medication trials where dosage was flexible, in both the short, relative risk (RR) 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76), P < 0.00001, and long term, RR 0.72 (0.65–0.80), P < 0.00001. Similar results were observed for withdrawal due to adverse events, RR: 0.54 (0.41–0.72), P < 0.0001. Nevertheless, the favourable effects of atypical medication disappeared in trials relying on fixed dosage.
We detected a significant positive effect in terms of the outcome of treatment discontinuation for atypical versus typical medication, though only where the use of flexible rather than fixed doses (closer to an experimental control situation) was possible.
Near-field to far-field transformations constitute a powerful antenna characterization technique for near-field measurement scenarios. In this paper, a near-field to far-field transformation technique based on multiple spherical wave expansions (SWEs) is presented. Thanks to its iterative matrix inversion nature, the approach performs the transformation of fields measured on arbitrary surfaces. Also, irregular sampling schemes can be incorporated. The proposed algorithm is based on modeling the antenna fields with not one, but several SWEs distributed over its geometry. Due to the high number of SWEs, their truncation number can be arbitrarily reduced. Working with expansions of low order allows us to incorporate the probe correction in the transformation in a very simple way, accepting any type of probe and orientation. Only the probe far-field pattern is used, thus working with its full SWE is avoided. The algorithm is validated using simulated field data as well as measurements of real antennas.
Native to southeast Asia, the spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura); Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become a major pest of small fruits in the Americas and Europe. Field studies were conducted over a two-year period (2015–2016) in cultivated highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum Linnaeus; Ericaceae) fields and adjacent non-crop habitats containing wild blueberries in New Jersey (United States of America). We tracked seasonal changes in D. suzukii adult abundance and fruit infestation throughout the ripening period (June–August). In both years, D. suzukii adult counts post-harvest were generally higher in traps located in non-crop habitats compared with those located in highbush blueberry fields. Wild and cultivated fruits synchronised in maturation, and the numbers of eggs laid and of emerged adults in both fruit types were comparable for most of the season, although sometimes these numbers were higher in wild fruits post-harvest. Overall, immature success (measured as the per cent egg-to-adult survival) was also mostly higher in wild than in cultivated fruits. Altogether, these studies document that non-crop habitats, and wild hosts therein, are used by D. suzukii during fruit ripening and may serve as potential sources of infestation to nearby highbush blueberry fields. Hence, methods that reduce D. suzukii populations in non-crop habitats may help manage this pest in neighbouring highbush blueberries.
Audits play a critical role in maintaining the integrity of observational cohort data. While previous work has validated the audit process, sending trained auditors to sites (“travel-audits”) can be costly. We investigate the efficacy of training sites to conduct “self-audits.”
In 2017, eight research groups in the Caribbean, Central, and South America network for HIV Epidemiology each audited a subset of their patient records randomly selected by the data coordinating center at Vanderbilt. Designated investigators at each site compared abstracted research data to the original clinical source documents and captured audit findings electronically. Additionally, two Vanderbilt investigators performed on-site travel-audits at three randomly selected sites (one adult and two pediatric) in late summer 2017.
Self- and travel-auditors, respectively, reported that 93% and 92% of 8919 data entries, captured across 28 unique clinical variables on 65 patients, were entered correctly. Across all entries, 8409 (94%) received the same assessment from self- and travel-auditors (7988 correct and 421 incorrect). Of 421 entries mutually assessed as “incorrect,” 304 (82%) were corrected by both self- and travel-auditors and 250 of these (72%) received the same corrections. Reason for changing antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, ART end date, viral load value, CD4%, and HIV diagnosis date had the most mismatched corrections.
With similar overall error rates, findings suggest that data audits conducted by trained local investigators could provide an alternative to on-site audits by external auditors to ensure continued data quality. However, discrepancies observed between corrections illustrate challenges in determining correct values even with audits.
This paper provides an update and overview of the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) radars and platforms, including representative results from these systems. CReSIS radar systems operate over a frequency range of 14–38 GHz. Each radar system's specific frequency band is driven by the required depth of signal penetration, measurement resolution, allocated frequency spectra, and antenna operating frequencies (often influenced by aircraft integration). We also highlight recent system advancements and future work, including (1) increasing system bandwidth; (2) miniaturizing radar hardware; and (3) increasing sensitivity. For platform development, we are developing smaller, easier to operate and less expensive unmanned aerial systems. Next-generation platforms will further expand accessibility to scientists with vertical takeoff and landing capabilities.
The FA, like every political party organization in a democratic context, has a tension between choosing policies and candidates that are closer to the preferences of the median voter versus those that are closer to members´ preferences. This chapter analyzes the role that the organizational structure exerts over the party in opposition and the party in government. The chapter presents observational evidence concerning the influence of the party on crucial policy issues and on the government’s decision-making. Also, it briefly details the process of ideological transformation of the FA. The chapter shows that the FA organizational structure limits the leaders’ and government’s room to maneuver. It limits party leaders´ incentives to moderate their positions because major decisions need to have the organization´s explicit support, or at least an absence of opposition. When the FA is in government, the party organization also constrains government action concerning substantive and crucial policy issues. The lesson from the analysis in this chapter is that the party´s organizational structure can present challenges for strategic adaptation but provides insurance against the risk of brand dilution.
This chapter uses process tracing to argue that organizations that grant voice and veto power to activists in the decision-making process avoid oligarchization of the party. The FA presents an opportunity to analyze how party organization per se affects the performance of political parties. The FA is a successful case of party building and reproduction that sheds light on the role organizational structure plays in reproducing activists. The process tracing systematically describes and explains the formation and reproduction of the party. It shows how the party´s first steps as a political organization established a reproduction mechanism with a lock-in effect that explains the persistence of the party’s activism.
The professionalization of politics and the disappearance of party organizations based on activists seems an inescapable trend. This chapter shows the relevance of organizational rules for explaining the reproduction of party activism. Using data from both an online survey of people differing in their levels of engagement with the FA and in-depth interviews with party activists, we show that those with relatively low levels of engagement – “adherents” – and activists differ in their willingness to cooperate with the party and in the amount of time they devote to party activities. Also, we find that reducing the perceived efficacy of political engagement strongly decreases activists’ self-reported willingness to engage with the party, while this reduction has no effect upon adherents. These findings suggest that the design of organizational rules that grant a political role to grassroots organizers can promote party activism.
Political parties with activists are in decline due to various external shocks. Societal changes, like the emergence of new technologies of communication have diminished the role and number of activists, while party elites increasingly can make do without grassroots activists. However, recent scholarship concerning different democracies has shown how activism still matters for representation. This book contributes to this literature by analyzing the unique case of the Uruguayan Frente Amplio (FA), the only mass-organic, institutionalized leftist party in Latin America. Using thick description, systematic process tracing, and survey research, this case study highlights the value of an organization-centered approach for understanding parties' role in democracy. Within the FA, organizational rules grant activists a significant voice, which imbues activists' participation with a strong sense of efficacy. This book is an excellent resource for scholars and students of Latin America and comparative politics who are interested in political parties and the challenges confronting new democracies.
The chapter presents the setting in which the FA was born and in which it developed over the years. The combination of the exhaustion of the ISI model, increasing political polarization and the height of the Cold War dramatically determined the political dynamics of the late 1960s and 1970s and engendered a context of increasing authoritarianism and political violence. The fight against increasingly repressive governments was a significant incentive for the new party. Public opposition to the neoliberal agenda of the different governments that succeeded the authoritarian regime (1971–1985) also contributed to the FA’s increasingly successful electoral. In 2005, the FA gained office and won three consecutive national elections with an absolute majority in parliament. It was one of the most successful parties of the so-called “left turn.” During its time in government, the party enacted structural reforms in various policy areas. In terms of socioeconomic reforms, the FA approved a tax reform, a health-care reform, and was one of the two parties of the “left turn” that enacted deep labor market reforms. The FA also pursued a distinctive progressive agenda in the region that led to the legalization of abortion, same-sex marriage, and the liberalization of cannabis use.