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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Normal and oblique drop impact on a solid surface is numerically analysed for yield stress fluids. A rich diversity of results are generated as a consequence of the exploration of the inertial, elastic, plastic and thixotropic features of the process, as well as the inclination of the solid surface. We show that drops of more thixotropic fluids have a higher tendency to bounce in the normal impact, and to roll or to bounce in the case of an oblique drop impact. Concerning elasticity, we found a critical value for the elastic Ohnesorge number above which no bouncing takes place. Experimental findings such as the fact that the stored energy due to the elasticity of the fluid drop plays a role similar to the stored energy of an interfacial nature in inelastic fluid drops are corroborated in the present study.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Characterization of nanobioparticles is a demanding task. This problem is particularly evident in the case of biomedical applications of nanoparticles where toxicological indices and ADME parameters are the result of complex interactions of the nanoparticle at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore, particles of this size frequently behave in ways that are intrinsically different than those at meso and sub-nano scale. The success of the biological application of nanoparticles depends, however, to a large extent, on our ability to characterize, and eventually predict and control, the properties and behavior of nanoscale particles in realistic biological environments. To help this process, the development of computer-aided nanoparticle characterization approaches is highly desirable. Nanobioparticles include a large array of dissimilar materials under a common name, making the definition of common microscopic criteria matching the modeled molecular properties with the macroscopically observed ones, a daunting task. In this presentation we will review our efforts at devising strategies that, from in-silico simulations of nanoparticles, will help us infer their behavior in complex environments. The approaches presented rely on the application of sensitivity analysis techniques that probe the intrinsic stability of the particle. Particles will be suitable candidates for biological use only if they show low sensitivity to those challenges. The nature of the parameters explored and the possible generalization of this approach will be discussed by presenting our results using metal-loaded fullerenes, gold particles and dendrimers. This work has been funded in part with funds from the NCI-NIH (Contract No. NO1-CO-12400). The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the DHHS, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
A low cost robotic-assisted prototype for finger and hand rehabilitation of people affected by a stroke is presented. The system was developed by a team of undergraduate students led by a Design lecturer in collaboration with the Rehabilitation Unit of the Peñablanca Public Hospital in Chile.
The system consists of a flexion sensor equipped glove, a hand exoskeleton and an Arduino control unit. The patient wears the glove in his healthy hand. When s/he performs movements with the healthy hand, the sensors register the flexion of the fingers and send this information to the servo motors installed in an exoskeleton attached to the affected hand. In this way, the affected hand reproduces the movement of the healthy hand. The system uses a combination of the mirror therapy (the patient sees his/her affected hand moving in the same way that the healthy hand does) and passive exercising (as the exoskeleton produces the movement of the hand affected by the stroke). The combination of two types of therapy in a single low cost system makes the present work unique. In the near future, the developed prototype will be used to validate the effectiveness of the new proposed robotic therapy.
Whether leading a small team or a multinational corporation, within the public or private sector, a thorough understanding of the theory and best practice of leadership is essential. Leadership: Regional and Global Perspectives provides a fresh approach to leading in contemporary business environments. The theory component is complemented by a focus on strategic application. Each chapter features case studies highlighting the practical application of key concepts by organisational leaders in the Australasian region. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide a more nuanced analysis of the theory, while accompanying questions encourage students to think critically. Learning is further supported through the inclusion of learning objectives, key terms, further readings and review questions. An extensive bank of web resources is available to lecturers to support their teaching. Written by an expert team of academics from across Australia, Leadership gives students the tools they need to navigate their leadership journey.