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Older subjects are susceptible to develop gambling problems, and researchers have attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the gambling profile in later life. The objective of this study was to identify the main stressful life events (SLE) across the lifespan which have discriminative capacity for detecting the presence of gambling disorder (GD) in older adults. Data from two independent samples of individuals aged 50+ were analysed: N = 47 patients seeking treatment at a Pathological Gambling Outpatient Unit and N = 361 participants recruited from the general population. Sexual problems (p < 0.001), exposure to domestic violent behaviour (p < 0.001), severe financial problems (p = 0.002), alcohol or drug-related problems (p = 0.004) and extramarital sex (p < 0.001) were related to a higher risk of GD, while getting married (p = 0.005), moving to a new home (p = 0.003) and moving to a new city (p = 0.006) decreased the likelihood of disordered gambling. The accumulated number of SLE was not a predictor of the presence of GD (p = 0.732), but patients who met clinical criteria for GD reported higher concurrence of SLE in time than control individuals (p < 0.001). Empirical research highlights the need to include older age groups in evidence-based policies for gambling prevention, because these individuals are at high risk of onset and/or progression of behavioural addiction-related problems such as GD. The results of this study may be useful for developing reliable screening/diagnostic tools and for planning effective early intervention programmes aimed to reduce the harm related to the onset and evolution of problem gambling in older adults.
To examine children’s exposure to food and beverage advertising across a year of Colombian television based on whether products exceed Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)-defined nutrient thresholds.
Nutritional information was obtained for all foods and beverages advertised and used to categorise each product according to the product category (e.g. beverage, snack food) and nutritional quality based on the PAHO model for identifying products in excess of free sugars, Na or saturated fat or containing non-caloric sweeteners or trans-fat. Television audience ratings data were used to derive the average child audience (unique child viewers) per ad and the number of times ads were seen by children in a single week (weekly impressions) based on product category and nutritional quality.
All food and beverage ads on cable and over-the-air TV in Colombia in 2017.
Of all instances of TV ads, 89·3 % were of unhealthy products. A larger proportion of male and female children, as well as children from low (88·01 %), mid (89·10 %) and high (89·10 %) socio-economic status, are exposed to advertising of unhealthy products, but no significant difference was found between these proportions.
The majority of foods and beverages advertised to Colombian children are unhealthy. These findings highlight a need to implement statutory measures to reduce children’s exposure to unhealthy food advertising in Colombia, as obesity and overweight have been increasing among school-age children in Colombia, and exposure to television advertising of unhealthy foods is a known contributor to children’s food intake and obesity.
Poor adherence to treatment is one of the main problems in health care to psychiatric patients. The second-generation antipsychotics, and the subsequent emergence of the depot forms (long acting formulations) have facilitated this aspect, increasing the time to clinical relapse in patients with schizophrenia.
Determine the time to relapse in a clinical sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia treated with paliperidone palmitate over 3 years. Other objectives include the possible reduction in hospital admissions, as well as the possible reduction of psychiatric emergency visits, concomitant medication (benzodiazepines and Biperiden) and the possible increase in drug monotherapy.
This is a study with a sample of 101 patients with schizophrenia who had started treatment with PP (consecutive sampling). Quantified variables in the 12 months prior to the change of PP treatment with variables at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after initiation of treatment with PP were compared.
Results and conclusions
At the end of the tracking, 72.22% (73 patients) remained clinically stable, with adequate adherence to treatment and there have been no clinical relapses. It has obtained a statistically significant reduction in the use of concomitant medication, emergency room visits and the average duration of revenues, with no clinical relapse should occur in patients of the sample in the second and third year.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
DSM-5 proposed a new operational system by using the number of fulfilled criteria as an indicator of gambling disorder severity. This method has proven to be controversial among researchers and clinicians alike, due to the lack of studies indicating whether severity, as measured by these criteria, is clinically relevant in terms of treatment outcome. Additionally, numerous studies have highlighted the associations between gambling disorder and impulsivity, though few have examined the impact of impulsivity on long-term treatment outcomes.
In this study, we aimed to assess the predictive value of DSM-5 severity levels on response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in a sample of male adults seeking treatment for gambling disorder (n = 398). Furthermore, we explored longitudinal predictors of CBT treatment response at a follow-up, considering UPPS-P impulsivity traits.
Our study failed to identify differences in treatment outcomes between patients categorized by DSM-5 severity levels. Higher baseline scores in negative urgency predicted relapse during CBT treatment, and higher levels of sensation seeking were predictive of drop-out from short-term treatment, as well as of drop-out at 24-months.
These noteworthy findings raise questions regarding the clinical utility of DSM-5 severity categories and lend support to the implementation of dimensional approaches for gambling disorder.
Impulsivity and cognitive distortions are hallmarks of gambling disorder (GD) but it remains unclear how they contribute to clinical phenotypes. This study aimed to (1) compare impulsive traits and gambling-related distortions in strategic versus non-strategic gamblers and online versus offline gamblers; (2) examine the longitudinal association between impulsivity/cognitive distortions and treatment retention and relapse.
Participants seeking treatment for GD (n = 245) were assessed for gambling modality (clinical interview), impulsive traits (Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking [UPPS] scale) and cognitive distortions (Gambling Related Cognitions Scale) at treatment onset, and for retention and relapse (as indicated by the clinical team) at the end of treatment. Treatment consisted of 12-week standardized cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted in a public specialized clinic within a general public hospital.
Strategic gamblers had higher lack of perseverance and gambling-related expectancies and illusion of control than non-strategic gamblers, and online gamblers had generally higher distortions but similar impulsivity to offline gamblers. Lack of perseverance predicted treatment dropout, whereas negative urgency and distortions of inability to stop gambling and interpretative bias predicted number of relapses during treatment.
Individuals with online and strategic GD phenotypes have heightened gambling related biases associated with premature treatment cessation and relapse. Findings suggest that these GD phenotypes may need tailored treatment approaches to reduce specific distortions and impulsive facets.
To estimate trajectories of the gambling disorder (GD) severity for 12 months following a manualized cognitive-behavior-therapy (CBT) program, and to identify the main variables associated with each trajectory.
Latent Class Growth Analysis examined the longitudinal changes of n = 603 treatment-seeking patients with GD.
Five separate empirical trajectories were identified: T1 (n = 383, 63.5%) was characterized by the most highest baseline gambling severity levels and positive progress to recovery during the follow-up period; T2 (n = 154, 25.5%) featured participants with high baseline gambling severity and good progress to recovery; T3 (n = 30, 5.0%) was made up of patients with high gambling baseline severity and slow progress to recovery; T4 (n = 13, 2.2%) and T5 (n = 23, 3.8%) contained participants with high baseline gambling severity and moderate (T4) and poor (T5) progress in GD severity during the follow-up. Psychopathological state and personality traits discriminated between trajectories. Poor compliance with the therapy guidelines and the presence of relapses also differed between the trajectories.
Our findings show that patients seeking treatment for GD are heterogeneous and that trends in progress following treatment can be identified considering sociodemographic features, psychopathological state and personality traits. These results could be useful in developing more efficient interventions for GD patients.
Identifying a demand function for air quality is a key input to calculate welfare measurements of pollution abatement policies. We defined intra-urban housing submarkets to apply a Second Stage hedonic pricing model that allowed us to identify an inverse demand function for PM10 reductions in Bogotá. The monthly benefits of compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard (50 μg/m3 – annual average), and the far more stringent World Health Organization standard (20 μg/m3 – annual average) are valued at US$12.16 and US$189.64 per household, respectively. These values, in turn, represent about 1.35 per cent and 21.04 per cent of the average household income. The hedonic model applied hereby shows that intra-urban housing submarkets are suitable for the identification of a demand function to be used by policy makers interested in evaluating non-marginal benefits (costs) from air quality improvements (deterioration).
Although putative corals of uncertain affinities occur in the early Cambrian, the earliest definite tabulate corals have not been described prior to the Early Ordovician in North America. This paper reports a new finding of a tabulate-like coralomorph forming part of biostratigraphically well-constrained reef mounds in the latest Cambrian–Early Ordovician La Silla Formation in the Argentine Precordillera. The oldest record of the coralomorph genus Amsassia is reported and a new species, A. argentina, is erected. The discovery of this genus in the lowermost Ordovician modifies the previously proposed paleogeographic distribution and patterns of origination and migration routes of this coral-like organism. Amsassia argentina n. sp. constitutes a main framework builder together with a complex microbial consortium. This oldest occurrence of Amsassia as a reef builder represents a new record of a skeletal organism in the gap of metazoan reef constructors after the demise of archaeocyaths in the late early Cambrian.
The finance literature documents a relation between labor income and the cross section of stock returns. One possible explanation for this is the hedging decisions of investors with relative wealth concerns. This implies a negative risk premium associated with stock returns correlated with local undiversifiable wealth because investors are willing to pay more for stocks that help their hedging goals. We find evidence that is consistent with these regularities. In addition, we show that the effect varies across geographic areas depending on the size and variability of undiversifiable wealth, proxied by labor income.
Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55–80 years) and women (60–80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox’s regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (Pfor trend=0·020) and fruits (Pfor trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.
Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded inconsistent results. Besides, few studies have analysed the effects of red wine (RW) consumption on the prevalence of the MetS and its components. As moderate RW drinkers have a better lipid profile and lower incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension and abdominal obesity, all components of the MetS, it was hypothesised that moderate RW consumption could be associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS. In the present cross-sectional study of 5801 elderly participants at a high cardiovascular risk included in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, 3897 fulfilled the criteria of the MetS at baseline. RW intake was recorded using a validated 137-item FFQ. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the association between RW intake and the prevalence of the MetS. Compared with non-drinkers, moderate RW drinkers ( ≥ 1 drink/d) were found to have a reduced risk of prevalent MetS (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·68; P< 0·001), a lower risk of having an abnormal waist circumference (OR 0·59, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·77; P< 0·001), low HDL-cholesterol concentrations (OR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·53; P< 0·001), high blood pressure (OR 0·28, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·45; P< 0·001) and high fasting plasma glucose concentrations (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·82; P< 0·001) after adjusting for several confounders. This association was found to be stronger in female participants, in participants aged < 70 years and in participants who were former or current smokers. No significant association was found between RW intake ( ≥ 1 drink/d) and TAG concentrations. In conclusion, moderate RW consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS in an elderly Mediterranean population at a high cardiovascular risk.
Based on Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R), this study examines the relationships among teacher support resources, psychological need satisfaction, engagement and burnout in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher psychological needs were identified based on the study of Bess and on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the constructs selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by structural equation modeling. The results reveal a good model fit to the data (NNFI = .88; CFI = .90; GFI = .90; RMSEA = .061). The analyses indicate a positive and significant effect of latent variable Psychological Need Satisfaction on engagement (β = .74, p < .05), and a negative and significant effect on burnout (β = -.78, p ≤ .05). Furthermore, the results show the mediator role played by Psychological Need Satisfaction in the relationship between teacher support resources and both engagement and burnout (additional paths did not improve the model fit: Δχ2(2) = 2.428, p = .29). Finally, practical implications of these findings are discussed.
The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is an important pest in many countries. The sterile insect technique is an effective method of controlling Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in Argentina and has been proposed for use against A. fraterculus. Because this technique relies on sterile mass-reared males mating with wild females, it is essential to verify that artificial rearing does not reduce male mating competitiveness. Several morphometric characters were evaluated to detect differences between a wild population and a laboratory strain that was derived from it and reared artificially since 1997. Eight morphometric traits were analysed as indicators of body size, head shape and potential mobility: Thorax Length, Head Width, Face Width, Eye Length, Wing Length, Wing Width, Third Tibia Length and Femur Length. The results were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, linear multiple regression and logistic multiple regression. In general, laboratory flies were larger than wild ones (possibly because the larval diet was supplied ad libitum). Laboratory males had significantly larger Head Width and Eye Length and a smaller Wing Width than wild males. Laboratory females differed from wild ones only by having narrower wings. These results could be due to environmental and genetic factors, or as a consequence of genetic drift (for the latter) during colony establishment plus gradual adaptation to laboratory conditions, where flight ability is most likely less important (resources are found easily at close distances). Also, short-distance interactions among individuals are more frequent in a colony, possibly favouring increased facial trait sizes by sexual selection. Because long-term morphological changes could represent the beginning of intraspecific differentiation, they should probably be worthy of some consideration if a large mass-rearing colony is established.
The administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) typically used as antidepressants increases alcohol consumption after an alcohol deprivation period in rats. However, the appearance of this effect after the treatment with selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) has not been studied. In the present work we examined the effects of a 15-d treatment with the SNRI atomoxetine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) in male rats trained to drink alcohol solutions in a 4-bottle choice test. The treatment with atomoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) during an alcohol deprivation period increased alcohol consumption after relapse. This effect only lasted one week, disappearing thereafter. Treatment with atomoxetine did not cause a behavioral sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating the absence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. This effect is markedly different from that of SSRI antidepressants that produced both long-lasting increases in alcohol consumption and behavioral sensitization. Clinical implications are discussed.
The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance to the commensal microbiota and food antigens. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), polarising the subsequent activity of T-cells. Nevertheless, information about their underlying mechanisms of action is scarce. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a potentially probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) on human DC challenged with Escherichia coli. The results showed that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12p70 were higher in the cells treated with live L. rhamnosus than in the cells treated with the CFS. In the presence of E. coli, the supernatant was more effective than the probiotic bacteria in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, live L. rhamnosus potently induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2, whereas the CFS increased the secretion of TGF-β1. However, in the presence of E. coli, both treatments restored the levels of TGF-β. The probiotic strain L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 and its CFS were able to activate the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, enhancing innate immunity. The two treatments induced gene transcription of TLR-9. Live L. rhamnosus activated the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 genes, whereas the CFS increased the expression of TLR-1 and TLR-5 genes. In response to the stimulation with probiotic/CFS and E. coli, the expression of each gene tested was notably increased, with the exception of TNF-α and NFKBIA. In conclusion, the CFS exhibited an extraordinary ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DC, and may be used as an effective and safer alternative to live bacteria.
The aim of this study was to explore the association between pathological gambling (PG) and anger by assessing whether psychopathology and personality are related to PG and to evaluate gender differences. The sample comprised 71 PGs and 37 healthy controls. Anger, psychopathology and personality were assessed with the STAXI-2, SCL-90-R and TCI-R respectively. Gender did not affect anger expression after stratifying by diagnostic condition (p > .05). Among PG patients, anger, psychopathology and personality measures were correlated with good effect-size (r > .30). Scores in the Anger Temperament (B = 0.21, p = .038) and Anger External-Expression (B = 0.27, p = .029) scales were positively associated with PG severity scores. Anger expression in PG should be considered in future treatment programs.
Benthic dinoflagellates collected in spring–summer 2010 and 2011 from intertidal sandy sediments of the shore of Wimereux (north-east English Channel, France) were examined by light microscopy, and some of them by scanning electron microscopy. High dinoflagellate species richness, 70 species, was evidenced when compared to the plankton observed in the coastal waters of the north-east English Channel. The greatest difficulty in performing accurate species identification mainly concerned the heterotrophic species of Amphidinium sensu lato, the laterally flattened species of Amphidiniopsis, as well as some heterotrophic species of Thecadinium. Several undescribed species are here illustrated, mainly within these genera. The differences in size between species of Herdmania and Sabulodinium suggest the occurrence of at least a second species for these monotypic genera. The species Amphidiniopsis hexagona, A. rotundata, A. uroensis and Sinophysis minima are reported for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean and on European coasts. Although these species were only previously known from the Pacific Ocean, they should not necessarily be considered as newcomers or invasive species due to the scarce coverage of the previous studies on sand-dwelling dinoflagellates.
The use of antidepressants for alcoholism in humans has been a matter of controversy in recent years. Despite the existence of an important co-morbidity for depression and alcoholism, some studies suggest that the use of antidepressants could worsen the prognosis of alcoholism. However, there is a lack of studies in animal models exploring this phenomenon. In the present study, we show how the 15-d treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or venlafaxine (50 mg/kg) affected alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) and subsequent alcohol consumption. Initially, fluoxetine reduced ADE and venlafaxine did not affect it. However, in the following days, both antidepressants increased alcohol consumption, an effect that was found to last at least 5 wk. Fluoxetine treatment was shown to cause a locomotor sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg), indicating the presence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. In summary, antidepressant treatment may increase alcohol consumption in rats after a period of alcohol deprivation and this could be related to alterations in the reward circuitry. This finding confirms in an animal model previous reports in humans that may limit the use of antidepressants for alcoholism.
Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted using different probiotic micro-organisms have demonstrated their ability to interfere with the growth and virulence of a variety of enteropathogens. The reported beneficial effects of the use of probiotics to complement antibiotic therapy or prevent diarrhoea or gastrointestinal infection in infants have increased in recent years. In the present study, we demonstrated the capacity of supernatants obtained from three novel probiotics (Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036) isolated from the faeces of breastfed infants to inhibit the growth of enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic (EPEC) bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella. To assess their potential antimicrobial activity, the 17 and 24 h cell-free supernatants broth concentrates (10 × ) having 1, 2 or 4 % of the three probiotics were incubated with EPEC bacteria strains. After 17 h of co-culture, the supernatants were able to inhibit the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella up to 40, 55 and 81 %, respectively. However, the inhibitory capacity of some supernatants was maintained or completely lost when the supernatants (pH 3·0) were neutralised (pH 6·5). Overall, these results demonstrated that L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 produce compounds that exhibited strain-specific inhibition of enterobacteria and have the potential to be used as probiotics in functional foods.