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The interpersonal dependency inventory comprised three subscales called Emotional reliance of another person (ER), lack of social self confidence (LSS) and Assertion of autonomy (AUT). Several formula have been developed for deriving whole-scale scores.
The aim of the study on 621 addictive subjects was to determine the best formula using the DSM-IV dependent personality disorder as gold standard. The formula 3 ER + LSS – AUT yielded the best values of sensitivity and specificity.
According to human observations of a syndrome of physical activity dependence and its consequences, we tried to examine if running activity in a free activity paradigm, where rats had a free access to activity wheel, may present a valuable animal model for physical activity dependence and most generally to behavioral dependence. The pertinence of reactivity to novelty, a well-known pharmacological dependence predictor was also tested. Given the close linkage observed in human between physical activity and drugs use and abuse, the influence of free activity in activity wheels on reactivity to amphetamine injection and reactivity to novelty were also assessed. It appeared that (1) free access to wheel may be used as a valuable model for physical activity addiction, (2) two populations differing in activity amount also differed in dependence to wheel-running. (3) Reactivity to novelty did not appeared as a predictive factor for physical activity dependence (4) activity modified novelty reactivity and (5) subjects who exhibited a high appetence to wheel-running, presented a strong reactivity to amphetamine. These results propose a model of dependency on physical activity without any pharmacological intervention, and demonstrate the existence of individual differences in the development of this addiction. In addition, these data highlight the development of a likely vulnerability to pharmacological addiction after intense and sustained physical activity, as also described in man. This model could therefore prove pertinent for studying behavioral dependencies and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. These results may influence the way psychiatrists view behavioral dependencies and phenomena such as doping in sport or addiction to sport itself.
The aim of this paper was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of the self-critical and dependent depressive experiences in a clinical sample of eating disorder patients and to explore the impact of adverse childhood experiences on these dimensions of personality.
A sample of 94 anorexic and 61 bulimic patients meeting DSM-IV criteria and 236 matched controls were assessed with the Depressive Experience Questionnaire (DEQ), the abridged version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the AMDP Life Events Inventory. Subjects presenting a major depression or a comorbid addictive disorder were excluded from the sample using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
Anorexic and bulimic patients showed higher scores than controls on both self-criticism and dependency sub-scales of the DEQ. Bulimic patients scored significantly higher than anorexic patients on self-criticism and reported more adverse childhood experiences. Finally, negative life events correlated only with self-criticism in the whole sample.
Differences in the DEQ Self-Criticism between anorexics and bulimics could not be accounted for by depression since bulimic patients did not show higher BDI levels compared to anorexic patients and depressive symptoms measured with the BDI were not found to be significant predictors of diagnostic grouping in a logistic multiple regression.
This study supports the diagnostic specificity of the dependent and self-critical depressive dimensions in eating disorders and strengthens previous research on the role of early experiences in the development of these disorders.
Poor adherence to treatment is one of the main problems in health care to psychiatric patients. The second-generation antipsychotics, and the subsequent emergence of the depot forms (long acting formulations) have facilitated this aspect, increasing the time to clinical relapse in patients with schizophrenia.
Determine the time to relapse in a clinical sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia treated with paliperidone palmitate over 3 years. Other objectives include the possible reduction in hospital admissions, as well as the possible reduction of psychiatric emergency visits, concomitant medication (benzodiazepines and Biperiden) and the possible increase in drug monotherapy.
This is a study with a sample of 101 patients with schizophrenia who had started treatment with PP (consecutive sampling). Quantified variables in the 12 months prior to the change of PP treatment with variables at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after initiation of treatment with PP were compared.
Results and conclusions
At the end of the tracking, 72.22% (73 patients) remained clinically stable, with adequate adherence to treatment and there have been no clinical relapses. It has obtained a statistically significant reduction in the use of concomitant medication, emergency room visits and the average duration of revenues, with no clinical relapse should occur in patients of the sample in the second and third year.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Subclinical psychotic symptoms are present in the general population. Furthermore, they are quite common in diagnostic categories beyond psychosis, such as BPD patients.
We want to assess the differences between 3 groups: BPD (n = 68), FEP (n = 83) and controls (n = 203) in an experimental paradigm measuring the presence of speech illusions in white noise. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was administered in the patient group, the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised, and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in the control and BPD group. The white noise task was also analysed within a signal detection theory (SDT) framework. Logistic regression analyses and the general linear models were used to analyse the adjusted differences between groups.
Differences were more prevalent in signals that were perceived as affectively salient in patients groups (9.6% in FEP vs 5.9% in BPD and 1% in controls; OR: 10.7; 95%CI: 2.2–51.6, p = 0.003 in FEP; OR: 6.3; 95%CI: 1.1–35.0, p = 0.036 in BPD). Besides, we found a worse general performance and more false alarms in the task for FEP group using SDT framework.
Experimental paradigms indexing the tendency to detect affectively salient signals in noise may be used to identify liability to psychosis in people with vulnerability. Its predictable value in other diagnostic categories and general population requires further research.
Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups.
Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated. The primary outcomes were cognitive dimensions, dopaminergic/anticholinergic load of AP [in chlorpromazine equivalents (Eq-CPZ) and the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), respectively].
Impairments in processing speed, verbal memory and global cognition were significantly associated with high Eq-CPZ and verbal impairment with high ARS score. Moreover, this effect was higher in the low IQ subgroup.
Clinicians should be aware of the potential cognitive impairment associated with AP in advanced remission FEP, particularly in lower premorbid IQ patients.
Knowledge of a species’ potential distribution and the suitability of available habitat are fundamental for effective conservation planning and management. However, the quality of information on the distribution of species and their required habitats is highly variable in terms of accuracy and availability across taxa and regions, particularly in tropical landscapes where accessibility is especially challenging. Species distribution models (SDMs) provide predictive tools for addressing gaps for poorly surveyed species, but they rarely consider biases in geographical distribution of records and their consequences. We applied SDMs and variation partitioning analyses to investigate the relative importance of habitat characteristics, human accessibility, and their joint effects in the global distribution of the Critically Endangered Blue-throated Macaw Ara glaucogularis, a species endemic to the Amazonian flooded savannas of Bolivia. The probability of occurrence was skewed towards more accessible areas, mostly secondary roads. Variability in observed occurrence patterns was mostly accounted for by the pure effect of habitat characteristics (76.2%), indicating that bias in the geographical distribution of occurrences does not invalidate species-habitat relationships derived from niche models. However, observed spatial covariation between land-use at a landscape scale and accessibility (joint contribution: 22.3%) may confound the independent role of land-use in the species distribution. New surveys should prioritise collecting data in more remote (less accessible) areas better distributed with respect to land-use composition at a landscape scale. Our results encourage wider application of partitioning methods to quantify the extent of sampling bias in datasets used in habitat modelling for a better understanding of species-habitat relationships, and add insights into the potential distribution of our study species and opportunities for its conservation.
Despite how important it is to assess executive functioning in persons with Intellectual Disability (ID), instruments adapted and validated for this population are scarce. This study’s primary goal was to find evidence for the validity of the ID version of the Tower of London (TOLDXtm) test in persons with mild (IDMi) and moderate (IDMo) levels of ID with Down Syndrome (DS). A multicenter study was carried out. Subjects (n = 63, ≥ 39 years old) had DS with mild (n = 39) or moderate ID (n = 24) with no minor neurocognitive disorder or Alzheimer’s disease. Assessment protocol: TOLDXtm for ID, Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test Second Edition (K-BIT II), Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down’s Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities (CAMDEX-DS), Weigl’s Color-Form Sorting Test (WCFST), Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability (BT-ID), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-P). The internal consistency (IDMi and IDMo), factor structure of the different subscales, and relationship between TOLDXtm subscales and other cognitive measures (BT-ID, WCFST, and BRIEF-P) were analyzed. A normative data table with ID population quartiles is provided. TOLDXtm for ID showed a robust one factor structure and coherentassociations with other, related neuropsychological instruments. Significant differences between IDMi and IDMo on movement-related variables like Correct (Corr; p = .002) and Moves (Mov; p = .042) were observed, along with good internal consistency values, Corr (α = .75), Mov (α = .52). Regarding internal consistency, no between-groups differences were observed (all p-value > 0.05). The TOLDXtm for ID is thus an instrument, supported by good validity evidence, to evaluate problem-solving and planning in ID. It distinguishes between individuals with mild and moderate ID, and is highly associated with other measures of executive functioning.
Cygnus OB2 is a rich and relatively close (d~1.4 kpc) OB association in our Galaxy. It represents an ideal testbed for our theories about self-enrichment processes produced by pollution of the interstellar medium by successive generations of massive stars. Comerón & Pasquali (2012, A&A, 543, A101) found a correlation between the age of young stellar groups in Cygnus OB2 and their Galactic longitude. If is associated with a chemical composition gradient, it could support these self-enrichment processes.
Insect species can respond adaptively to stress temperature conditions including both thermal limits and reaction norms. In this study, we considered two populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in which adaptive differentiation was detected for tolerance to upper thermal limits. These two populations are found in two regions of Colombia with climatic differences: the Caribbean region with high environmental temperatures and the Southwest region with lower temperature regimens. We assessed the thermal responses to a range of 1 h heat shocks (37, 39, 41, 43 and 44 °C) performed below the thermal limits for this species. Thermal responses were measured using three life-history traits involved in fitness: survival, fecundity and viability of the offspring after heat shocks. Survival or fecundity as a response to heat shocks did not differ among populations; however, there were significantly different responses for viability between populations. The Southwestern population showed higher viability responses to low heat shocks than the Caribbean population. This relationship suggests a potential trade-off, which appears to be associated with climatic regions. In addition, these results suggest that adaptation under thermal limits does not necessarily involve similar responses throughout the reaction norm. A potential ongoing evolutionary response is taking place through the thermal reaction norms for viability after the invasion by this pest in Colombia.
The keystone plant resources (KPR) concept describes certain plant species in tropical forests as vital to community stability and diversity because they provide food resources to vertebrate consumers during the season of scarcity. Here, we use an 8-y, continuous record of fruit fall from a 1.44-ha mature forest stand to identify potential KPRs in a lowland western Amazonian rain forest. KPRs were identified based on four criteria: temporal non-redundancy; year-to-year reliability; abundance of reproductive-size individuals and inferred fruit crop size; and the variety of vertebrate consumers utilizing their fruit. Overall, seven species were considered excellent KPRs: two of these belong to the genus Ficus, confirming that this taxon is a KPR as previously suggested. Celtis iguanaea (Cannabaceae) – a canopy liana – has also been previously classified as a KPR; in addition, Pseudomalmea diclina (Annonaceae), Cissus ulmifolia (Vitaceae), Allophylus glabratus (Sapindaceae) and Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae) are newly identified KPRs. Our results confirm that a very small fraction (<5%) of the plant community consistently provides fruit for a broad set of consumers during the period of resource scarcity, which has significant implications for the conservation and management of Amazonian forests.
Mediterranean forests have always had to cope with challenging environmental conditions that change across different temporal and spatial scales. However, the rapidity of current environmental change, driven by greater-than-ever human influences on natural processes, is unprecedented and has triggered renewed research endeavour into the impacts on Mediterranean ecosystems (Valladares 2008). The climate of Mediterranean areas is expected to become drier and warmer, with decreasing water availability for plants and increasing evapotranspiration (IPCC 2007). This will result in more acute physiological stress, increased importance of species-specific tolerances, plasticity and thresholds, phenological change and recruitment effects (Montserrat-Martín et al. 2009; Morin et al. 2010; Peñuelas et al. 2004). Several studies have demonstrated how the conditions currently experienced by seedlings and saplings are quite different to those when current adults recruited (Lloret & Siscart 1995; Montoya 1995). The anticipated impacts of such changes have led to a renewed interest in classic ecophysiological research into drought stress and tolerance (Wikelskia & Cooke 2006), as well as population-level studies on phenotypic plasticity and the evolution of tolerance in certain key tree species, such as Holm (Quercus ilex) and cork oaks (Q. suber) (Gimeno et al. 2009; Ramírez-Valiente et al. 2010).
Niche modelling techniques are used to forecast changes to species distributions under future climate scenarios, and the results predict abrupt shifts of dominant tree species in the next decades. Forest diebacks, species migration and displacement, and altitudinal shifts of forest types have already been recorded (Peñuelas & Boada 2003; Allen et al. 2010). For example, in northeast Spain Fagus sylvatica and Calluna vulgaris are being replaced by Quercus ilex at high elevations (Peñuelas & Boada 2003).
dulce is a legume native to tropical America that produces
edible arils which can be white or red. The plant is also grown
in Asia and, to date, predominantly fruits produced in Asia have
been the subject of scientific studies. We studied white and red
arils produced in America. Materials and methods. White
aril and red aril fruits were evaluated in an array of reagent-based
assays to determine nutritional and nutraceutical properties. Results
and discussion. White arils and red arils showed similar
physicochemical characteristics, with high content of vitamin C
(79.7–82.6 mg·100 g–1 fresh weight) and dietary fiber (5.83–6.12%
fw). The anthocyanin content of red arils (29.5 mg·100 g–1 fw, as
cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) was similar to that of strawberry.
Total phenolics (517 mg·100 g–1 fw, as gallic acid equivalents)
and antioxidant activities (ABTS, 224 mg; DPPH, 223 mg, as vitamin
C equivalents) of red arils were 1.3 times higher than those in
white arils. The methanolic extract of red arils showed a higher
α-glucosidase inhibition (IC50 2.9 mg·mL–1) than acarbose (IC50 4.9 mg·mL–1).
The methanolic extract [(50, 100 and 500) μg per tube] of red and white
arils showed positive-strong antimutagenic activities (inhibition
in the range 25–70%) in the assay (Salmonella typhimurium YG1024
strain, 1-nitropyrene as mutagen, 200 ng per tube). We are reporting
for the first time remarkably high characteristics (i.e., antioxidant,
inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and content of dietary
fiber) of P. dulce fruits, mainly of the red ones;
properties which combined permit us to suggest that consumption
of these fruits could have beneficial health effects in people with
Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted using different probiotic micro-organisms have demonstrated their ability to interfere with the growth and virulence of a variety of enteropathogens. The reported beneficial effects of the use of probiotics to complement antibiotic therapy or prevent diarrhoea or gastrointestinal infection in infants have increased in recent years. In the present study, we demonstrated the capacity of supernatants obtained from three novel probiotics (Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036) isolated from the faeces of breastfed infants to inhibit the growth of enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic (EPEC) bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella. To assess their potential antimicrobial activity, the 17 and 24 h cell-free supernatants broth concentrates (10 × ) having 1, 2 or 4 % of the three probiotics were incubated with EPEC bacteria strains. After 17 h of co-culture, the supernatants were able to inhibit the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella up to 40, 55 and 81 %, respectively. However, the inhibitory capacity of some supernatants was maintained or completely lost when the supernatants (pH 3·0) were neutralised (pH 6·5). Overall, these results demonstrated that L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 produce compounds that exhibited strain-specific inhibition of enterobacteria and have the potential to be used as probiotics in functional foods.
During seed germination, metabolism is reactivated, DNA is repaired and cell division is restarted in the meristems. The mechanisms that co-ordinate cell growth and division in maize embryonic axes during germination are not well understood. However, the presence of a factor similar to IGF (insulin-like growth factor) that accelerates germination has been reported. In the present work, the regulation of the cell-cycle restart by bovine insulin [which has been demonstrated to produce similar effects as insulin-like growth factor of maize (ZmIGF) in maize seeds] was studied in germinating embryonic axes. Our results showed that bovine insulin differentially stimulates growth, S6K phosphorylation, S6rp transcript accumulation on the polysomal fraction, as well as de novo DNA synthesis in the radicles and the coleoptiles of the embryonic axis. A stronger and earlier effect was observed in radicles compared to coleoptiles; therefore, the effect of insulin on the cell cycle of the root meristem was studied by flow cytometry. The G1–S transition was stimulated and cell proliferation was induced. Furthermore, it was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) that bovine insulin increased E2F and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) transcription after 15 h of germination and PCNA de novo synthesis at 15 h of germination. These results show that bovine insulin preferentially stimulates growth in the radicles of germinating embryonic axes and suggest that its effect on the G1–S transition and the activation of cell proliferation is mediated by the induction of E2F and PCNA transcription.
Environmental issues related to CO2 emissions have become a key focus for many different industries, including the cement and concrete industry. An environmentally optimized ‘green’ concrete can provide a much needed alternative to conventional concrete to reduce the carbon foot-print of the construction industry. This can be achieved through high Portland cement replacement by fly ash and with the inclusion of activators to enhance the rate of development of strength and other properties. This study evaluates different fly ashes and different activators (Na2SO4, lime and quicklime) that are added to enhance the reaction of the fly ash to achieve a comparable performance to that of standard Portland cement in mixes of much lower CO2 emissions. TGA, XRD and SEM are used to determine the development of hydration products and the consumption of portlandite by the fly ash. It is found that the amorphous content of the fly ash is an important parameter influencing compressive strength evolution. Based on the results, Na2SO4 as an activator, and a fly ash with high reactive SiO2 and Al2O3 contents and low Fe2O3 are found to provide the best options for producing a high volume fly ash matrix with the potential to show comparable behavior to a Portland cement control mix.
The rate of insertion of transposable elements (TEs) is a fundamental parameter to understand both their dynamics and role in the evolution of the eukaryotic genome. Nonetheless, direct estimates of insertion rates are scarce because transposition is in general a rare phenomenon. A great deal of our previous work on transposition was based on a set of long-term mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Drosophila melanogaster started in 1987 (Oviedo lines), where roo was found highly active, with a rate of insertion of 7×10−4 insertions per element and generation, as compared with other 15 TE families that presented transposition rates around 10−5. Here, we study the evolution of the roo transposition rate, by in situ hybridization, after 60–75 additional generations of MA in two subsets of the Oviedo lines, O and O′, which had achieved average numbers of roo insertions of 77 and 84, respectively. In the O lines, insertions accumulated at a rate that remained constant (7×10−4 insertions per element and generation); however, the subset of lines O′ showed a lower accumulation rate of 4×10−4 insertions per element per generation, suggesting a regulation of transposition that depends on the number of elements. However, one of the O′ lines reached a number of 103 insertions, departing from the group mean by 4·6 sd, and showing that it escapes regulation. Hence, ‘de novo’ mutations affecting the regulation of transposition are relatively common. These results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms of containment of TEs.