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Several studies have found that, after repeated exposure to new words, children form orthographic representations that allow them to read those words faster and more fluently. However, these studies did not take into account variables related to the words. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sublexical variables on the formation of orthographic representations of words by Spanish children. The first experiment used pseudo-words of varying syllabic structure and syllabic frequency. The stimuli for the second experiment were formed with or without context-dependent graphemes. We found that formation of orthographic representations was influenced by syllabic structure (easier for words with simple syllabic structure) and the context-dependency of graphemes (easier in the absence of context-dependent graphemes), but not syllabic frequency. These results indicate that the easier it is to read a word, the easier it is to form an orthographic representation of it.
Bismuth triiodide (BiI3) has been studied aiming the development of lead-free photovoltaic materials. It can also be used as X-ray detectors due to the high density of its elements (bismuth and iodine). We investigate the mechanical stress, hardness, and elastic properties of BiI3 thin films deposited by thermal evaporation. The stress was determined by the bending beam technique using the Stoney equation. The films are tensile with stress of approximately 27 MPa. The hardness and the elastic modulus were determined by nanoindentation technique using a Berkovich diamond tip. The hardness of the films is approximately 0.8 GPa and the reduced Young´s modulus is ∼28 GPa for maximum penetration depth of 10% of the film thickness.
At Cova Eirós, we discovered 13 panels with paintings and engravings that stylistically point to the final moments of the Upper Paleolithic. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy were used to identify charcoal as black pigment. Although contamination from medieval fires inside the cave complicates the dating of these pictographs, analyses of unpainted rock backgrounds allowed calculation corrections for contaminated samples. We used plasma oxidation and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to directly radiocarbon (14C) date two charcoal paintings—confirming that the images are more than 9000 yr old. As these paintings superimpose engravings, these 14C dates also provide a minimum age for an engraving at Cova Eirós that is stylistically Final Magdalenian/Epipaleolithic. This is the first known evidence of Paleolithic cave art in Galicia of NW Iberia.
The Iberian Peninsula is part of the South European Atlantic Shelf within the Lusitanian ecoregion. Given the characteristics of this region, a great invertebrate biodiversity is expected. Nevertheless, no literature records of Polycladida are known for the Cantabrian Sea. Here, we report the presence of six polyclad species, including one new species. Notoplana vitrea, considered endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, was found in the Cantabrian Sea, demonstrating its presence in Atlantic waters. This species was previously reported for these waters on two natural history photographic websites: the importance of searching, indexing and disseminating this type of record for the scientific community is discussed. Discocelis tigrina is reported for the first time for the Cantabrian Sea, and is the northernmost record to date. In this paper, Pleioplana atomata is reported for the second time for the Iberian Peninsula, yet is the first record for the Cantabrian Sea. Although a literature record of Leptoplana tremellaris for the Iberian Peninsula exists, it is considered a misidentification of L. mediterranea; therefore, this work provides the first record of L. tremellaris for the Iberian Peninsula. The cosmopolitan species Cycloporus papillosus is also reported for the Cantabrian Sea. A new species, Imogine fafai sp. nov., is described and taxonomically compared with other species of the genus.
The keystone plant resources (KPR) concept describes certain plant species in tropical forests as vital to community stability and diversity because they provide food resources to vertebrate consumers during the season of scarcity. Here, we use an 8-y, continuous record of fruit fall from a 1.44-ha mature forest stand to identify potential KPRs in a lowland western Amazonian rain forest. KPRs were identified based on four criteria: temporal non-redundancy; year-to-year reliability; abundance of reproductive-size individuals and inferred fruit crop size; and the variety of vertebrate consumers utilizing their fruit. Overall, seven species were considered excellent KPRs: two of these belong to the genus Ficus, confirming that this taxon is a KPR as previously suggested. Celtis iguanaea (Cannabaceae) – a canopy liana – has also been previously classified as a KPR; in addition, Pseudomalmea diclina (Annonaceae), Cissus ulmifolia (Vitaceae), Allophylus glabratus (Sapindaceae) and Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae) are newly identified KPRs. Our results confirm that a very small fraction (<5%) of the plant community consistently provides fruit for a broad set of consumers during the period of resource scarcity, which has significant implications for the conservation and management of Amazonian forests.
Grant Mitchell, Medical Genetic Division, Department of Pediatrics Saint Justine Medical Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,
Pierre A. Russo, Anatomic Pathology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA,
Josée Dubois, CHU Saint Justine Medical Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,
Fernando Alvarez, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, CHU Saint Justine Medical Centre, Department of Pediatrics and Deaprtment of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Hepatorenal tyrosinemia is a fascinating inborn error of metabolism that can affect numerous organs, particularly the liver, kidneys, and peripheral nerves. (For simplicity, this chapter uses the generic term tyrosinemia to refer to hepatorenal tyrosinemia (also known as fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency, tyrosinemia type I or congenital tyrosinosis; MIM 27670). Other forms of hypertyrosinemia are referred to by their specific names.) The first report of a patient with elevated blood tyrosine was in 1932 . Patients with a more typical clinical and biochemical picture of tyrosinemia were then described in the late 1950s . Since then, more than 500 patients have been reported in the literature or enrolled in the International NTBC Trial (of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethyl benzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (nitisinone)). Previously, almost all patients died in infancy and early childhood, and only isolated case reports described affected adults. In the 50 years since the description of tyrosinemia, the course of the disease has been improved successively by the introduction of diet therapy, neonatal screening, and hepatic transplantation. The advent of liver and kidney transplantation as a definitive treatment revolutionized the outcome . Recently, the availability of nitisinone, a chemical commercialized as Orfadin (Swedish Orphan International, Stockholm, Sweden), has provided hope for a non-surgical solution for some patients . On a fundamental level, tyrosinemia raises questions in hepatology, biochemical and population genetics, cell biology, oncology, and public health.
Tyrosinemia is caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH; EC 18.104.22.168), the last enzyme of tyrosine degradation (Figure 31.1a). The site of the primary metabolic block in tyrosinemia was elegantly deduced by Lindblad et al. in 1977  and subsequently confirmed enzymatically by others . The enzyme is a 419 amino acid residue cytosolic homodimer present in the liver and to some extent in the kidney, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, fibroblasts, and chorionic villi . Human liver FAH cDNAs (GenBank NM000137) and the human gene FAH have been cloned and sequenced and the human gene mapped to chromosome 15q23-q25 . Early studies of tyrosinemia showed that other enzymes of tyrosine degradation, particularly 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4HPPD), are reduced in tyrosinemic liver. These changes have subsequently been shown to be secondary to the deficiency of FAH.
The aim of this study was to explore the association between pathological gambling (PG) and anger by assessing whether psychopathology and personality are related to PG and to evaluate gender differences. The sample comprised 71 PGs and 37 healthy controls. Anger, psychopathology and personality were assessed with the STAXI-2, SCL-90-R and TCI-R respectively. Gender did not affect anger expression after stratifying by diagnostic condition (p > .05). Among PG patients, anger, psychopathology and personality measures were correlated with good effect-size (r > .30). Scores in the Anger Temperament (B = 0.21, p = .038) and Anger External-Expression (B = 0.27, p = .029) scales were positively associated with PG severity scores. Anger expression in PG should be considered in future treatment programs.
Eighty-two hospitals of 66 cities in 30 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Greece, India, Kosovo, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Salvador, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, Uruguay, and Vietnam) from 4 continents (America, Asia, Africa, and Europe).
Patients undergoing surgical procedures (SPs) from January 2005 to December 2010.
Data were gathered and recorded from patients hospitalized in INICC member hospitals by using the methods and definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) for SSI. SPs were classified into 31 types according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, criteria.
We gathered data from 7,523 SSIs associated with 260,973 SPs. SSI rates were significantly higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data, including the rates of SSI after hip prosthesis (2.6% vs 1.3%; relative risk [RR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8–2.4]; P<.001), coronary bypass with chest and donor incision (4.5% vs 2.9%; RR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.4–1.6]; P<.001); abdominal hysterectomy (2.7% vs 1.6%; RR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.4–2.0]; P<.001); exploratory abdominal surgery (4.1 % vs 2.0%; RR, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.6–2.6]; P<.001); ventricular shunt, 12.9% vs 5.6% (RR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.9–2.6]; P<.001), and others.
SSI rates were higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data.
Dry grain legume seeds possessing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing αAI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to αAI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The αAI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control αAI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to αAI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures.
The purpose of this study was to achieve a descellularized scaffold from cartilage tissue, which can be used as xenograft for cartilage tissue regeneration.
This work presents the results obtained using one method to wash porcine trachea in order to remove cellular material from the extracellular matrix and to avoid the immune reaction using enzymatic detergent and partial enzymatic degradation with Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase-I), Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) and Trypsin. This treatment was qualitatively evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and H&E Stain (Histology), and quantitatively evaluated by DNA quantification. The thermal characterization of the descellularized scaffold was carried out using Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The type of collagen obtained from the scaffold was determined through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. When using Enzymatic Treatment (ET) to wash trachea tissue, it is possible to obtain an acellular xenograft; this procedure has the potential to avoid rejection reactions of the xenograft.
The presence of a shrimp necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHP) in zooplankton samples from the Gulf of California was confirmed by qPCR and DNA sequences analysis. Samples of zooplankton were collected from stations located on the eastern shore of the Gulf of California, an area adjacent geographically to the coast of Sonora, Mexico. Three zooplankton samples (NHP S3, S23 and S24) were detected. These samples were collected in Bahía de Agiabampo and Bahía de Guasimas, an area distributed along the length of the coast in the vicinity of a shrimp farm area. These results clearly indicate that NHP-B may be associated or colonizing zooplankton, which may serve as a potential vector of potential importance in the spread of this disease. The biological meaning of this finding is discussed.
A before-after prospective surveillance study to assess the impact of a multidimensional infection control approach for the reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates.
Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) of hospital members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) from 10 cities of the following 6 developing countries: Colombia, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Philippines, and Turkey.
We performed a prospective active surveillance to determine rates of CAUTI among 3,877 patients hospitalized in 10 PICUs for a total of 27,345 bed-days. The study was divided into a baseline period (phase 1) and an intervention period (phase 2). In phase 1, surveillance was performed without the implementation of the multidimensional approach. In phase 2, we implemented a multidimensional infection control approach that included outcome surveillance, process surveillance, feedback on CAUTI rates, feedback on performance, education, and a bundle of preventive measures. The rates of CAUTI obtained in phase 1 were compared with the rates obtained in phase 2, after interventions were implemented.
During the study period, we recorded 8,513 urinary catheter (UC) days, including 1,513 UC-days in phase 1 and 7,000 UC-days in phase 2. In phase 1, the CAUTI rate was 5.9 cases per 1,000 UC-days, and in phase 2, after implementing the multidimensional infection control approach for CAUTI prevention, the rate of CAUTI decreased to 2.6 cases per 1,000 UC-days (relative risk, 0.43 [95% confidence interval, 0.21–1.0]), indicating a rate reduction of 57%.
Our findings demonstrated that implementing a multidimensional infection control approach is associated with a significant reduction in the CAUTI rate of PICUs in developing countries.
Background: Very few studies have compared the efficacy of individual and group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) by taking into consideration the change in OCD severity in both the short and long term. Aims: To conduct an open trial of individual versus group CBT for OCD, comparing the clinical and statistically significant changes in severity both at post-treatment and one year later. Method: Forty-two OCD subjects were assigned to individual (n = 18) or group CBT (n = 24, in four groups). Sixteen and 22 subjects completed the treatment in the individual and group conditions, respectively. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was recorded at pre-treatment, post-treatment and at the one-year follow-up. Results: At the end of treatment, the clinically significant change was comparable for the two treatment conditions and remained stable at the one-year follow-up. Of the 16 participants who completed the individual CBT treatment, 68.75% were classified as recovered at post-treatment, compared to 40.9% of those receiving group CBT. At follow-up the rate of recovery decreased to 62.5% in individual CBT and to 31.8% in group CBT. Conclusions: Group CBT is effective in decreasing OCD severity. The post-treatment changes were maintained one year later. Nevertheless, these changes were higher in the individual delivery of CBT.
We report the fabrication of micron-sized rodlike particles of nonstoichiometric Co and Ni ferrites by aging coprecipitated Fe(OH)2 and M(OH)2—where M is either Ni or Co—at 90 °C in the presence of an external magnetic field (B ≈ 405 mT). Potassium nitrate was used as a mild oxidant. Resultant particles were analyzed by means of electron microscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), magnetometry, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometry, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rodlike particles of both types of ferrite exhibited a relatively uniform thickness, an average aspect ratio close to 10, and have a spinel crystalline structure. EDX spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation of Ni2+ and Co2+ in the respective ferrite particles. The incorporation of Co2+ led to non-negligible remanence and coercivity. The incorporation of Ni2+ led to a lower saturation magnetization, whereas the remanence and coercivity of the Ni ferrite were very low, still typical of a soft ferrimagnetic material. The mechanism of formation of the rodlike particles was investigated by the time-dependent observation of growing Ni ferrite rods.
The loop configuration, structure and growth are studied in a series of megathiridoid dorsal valves ranging in length from 0·7 to 6 mm. The structure of the posterior and anterior sectors of the descending lamellae and their relationships with the socket ridges, dorsal septa and dorsal valve floor, are studied, illustrated and described. Detailed studies show that internal structures display great variability. In the megathiridoids the lamellae of more typical terebratulide loops are replaced by partially developed loops in early developmental stages, resulting in a mix of free sections of loop together with sections where the lophophore rests directly on the epithelium of the valve floor. Comments on the ecology of the megathiridoid species are included and relate their unusually wide gapes, which position their lophophores fully accessible to the open sea, with their strong lophophore attachments and loss of typical free loops. The new genus Joania (type species Terebratula cordata Risso, 1826) is erected for those Argyrotheca which, although having a typical megathiridoid brachidium, differ in their adult crural development, their narrow hinge line, their prominent cardinal process, their characteristic dorsal median septum and their tuberculate radial ridges terminating anteriorly in tubercles.
Grant A. Mitchell, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, CHU Sainte-Justine and Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada,
Pierre A. Russo, Professor of Pathology and Pediatrics, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
Josée Dubois, Professor of Radiology, Department of Radiology, CHU Sainte-Justine and Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada,
Fernando Alvarez, Professor of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, CHU Sainte-Justine and Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
Hepatorenal tyrosinemia is a fascinating inborn error of metabolism that can affect numerous organs, particularly the liver, kidneys, and peripheral nerves. The first report of a patient with elevated blood tyrosine was by Medes in 1932 . Patients with a more typical clinical and biochemical picture of tyrosinemia were then described in the late 1950s [2–5]. Since then, more than 500 patients have been reported in the literature [6–8] or enrolled in the International NTBC [2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethyl benzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione] Trial. Previously, almost all patients died in infancy and early childhood, and only isolated case reports described affected adults. In the 50 years since the description of tyrosinemia , the course of the disease has been improved successively by the introduction of diet therapy, neonatal screening, and hepatic transplantation. The advent of liver and kidney transplantation as a definitive treatment [7–11] revolutionized the outcome. Recently, the availability of NTBC, a chemical now designated as nitisinone and commercialized as Orfadin (Swedish Orphan International AB), has provided hope for a nonsurgical solution for some patients. On a fundamental level, tyrosinemia raises questions in hepatology, biochemical and population genetics, cell biology, oncology, and public health.
Tyrosinemia is caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH; enzyme [EC] 22.214.171.124), the last enzyme of tyrosine degradation (Figure 29.1A). The site of the primary metabolic block in tyrosinemia was elegantly deduced by Lindblad et al. in 1977  and subsequently confirmed enzymatically by several investigators [13–15].