To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A global trend towards more community control over forests has slowed deforestation and forest degradation, reduced carbon emissions, supported community livelihoods and built social capital. In some cases these positive benefits have not been realized, and there have been mixed results on intra-community equity. Three ‘wicked characteristics’ mitigate the success of community forests: where tenure change erodes the power of economic and technical elites, who then respond by undermining the community forest; where it is difficult to support communities without impacting their collective action; and where governments develop policies that are difficult to adapt to local contexts.
Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 9 is centered on three main pillars: industry, infrastructure and innovation. With 8 targets and 12 indicators, SDG 9 will have multiple impacts on forests, forest-based livelihoods and forest-based economies. Drawing on a comprehensive literature review, we conclude that major trade-offs will exist between SDG 9 and SDG 15 (sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems), especially if economic expansion and increasing planetary impacts remain coupled. More specifically, the implementation of Target 9.1 and its corresponding indicators (road, infrastructure and transportation expansion) may lead to irreversible and widespread forest degradation and deforestation. As such, the short- and long-term environmental and social costs of this goal need to be better assessed, especially in light of the fact that other SDG 9 targets (e.g. small-scale industry expansion (Target 9.3); access to information and communications technology (Target 9.c)) may have diverse consequences for forests and livelihoods, depending on how they are applied. We call for reforms of SDG 9 to promote and support alternative socio-economic models that are not based on indefinite economic growth, nor reliant on the ongoing expansion of infrastructure, but, rather, necessitate forests and terrestrial ecosystem services to be essential building blocks of a green and sustainable economy.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.