To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expense in the United States and Europe. Each year approximately 1 million head-injured patients are treated and released from United States emergency departments (EDs). The incidence rate of hospitalized plus fatal TBI in the United States (103 per 100,000 population) is considerably lower than in Europe (235 per 100,000 population). The mortality rate remains similar for the United States and Europe (15–20 per 100,000 population/year).
▪In the United States, transportation-related crashes (involving motor vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians, and recreational vehicles) accounted for 49% of all TBIs; falls accounted for an additional 26% and firearm use (including suicide attempts) accounted for 10% of all TBIs.
▪In Europe, transportation-related crashes are still the main cause of injury. However, falls represents approximately 40% of injuries and violence/ assaults fewer than 5%.
CLASSIFICATION OF TBI
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; Table 16.2) is widely used to evaluate the severity of brain injuries. This scale corresponds to the definition of coma as no eye opening (E < 2), no verbal utterances (V < 3), and not following commands (M < 6). However, the assessment of the components of the GCS is limited by widespread use of sedation and intubation before hospital arrival.
▪TBI is stratified according to the GCS score as mild (scores 14–15), moderate (9–13), or severe (3–8).
▪Increased severity of injury on admission is associated with an increased rate of death or vegetative state and a decreased rate of good recovery.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.