Bamboo is a natural composite and one of the most efficient structures in nature because of the relationship of mechanical properties with its microstructural features. This research presents the 3D characterization of the reinforcement bundles of a branching nodal region of bamboo, through high-resolution X-ray microtomography (µCT). µCT was used to characterize a sample regarding the volume, relative density, and porosity of parenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues, and the resulting data were used to estimate their constitutive properties. A nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) was performed based on a discretized model of the µCT to the limiting compressive load. Secondary bundles presented an interweaved arrangement into the primary vascular elements that distribute axial compressive stresses into new branches. Our findings suggest that the foam-like behavior of the parenchyma, the sclerenchyma thickening above the nodal zone, and the nodal vascular branching are ways for bamboo to protect important tissues from mechanical stress by allocating axial loads. In addition, such mechanism could be applied in the design of biomimetic structures with selective load-bearing capabilities.