To assess the impact of the carpenter bee, Xylocopa olivacea Fabricius 1787, on the pod and seed yields of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. 1900, in this study, its foraging and pollinating activities were examined in Nkolbisson during two seasons (July 2008–January 2009 and June–December 2009). Observations were made on 180 inflorescences per treatment. The treatments included unlimited floral access to all visitors, bagging of flowers to prevent access to all visitors, and floral access to limited visits by X. olivacea only. In addition, information on all floral visitors was recorded. The carpenter bee's seasonal rhythm of activity, its foraging behaviour on flowers, its pollination efficiency, the fruiting rate (Fr) and the number of seeds per pod were recorded. Nineteen species of insects were recorded visiting the flowers of C. cajan.Chalicodoma cincta cincta was the most prominent one, followed by X. olivacea, Apismellifera adansonii, Megachile bituberculata and Xylocopa albiceps, and the bees were the most frequent floral visitors. Xylocopa olivacea mainly foraged for nectar and pollen and its foraging speed was 11.75 flowers/min. The Fr, the number of seeds/pod and the percentage of normal seeds of unprotected inflorescences were significantly higher than those of inflorescences protected from insects. The foraging activity of X. olivacea resulted in a significant increase in the Fr by 22.26%, as well as the number of seeds/pod by 34.98% and the percentage of normal seeds by 12.09% in the two study years. Placing X. olivacea nests close to C. cajan fields is recommended to increase pod and seed production in Cameroon.