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Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
The thermal properties of organic membranes attract much attention due to the fact that heat dissipation in electronic devices limits their functionality and reliability. Here, we enhance the thermal conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membrane using nano-fibers fabricated by electrospinning. Measured by the 3-Omega method, the results show that the effective thermal conductivity of the electrospinning membranes (with/without Cu nanoparticles) are as high as 0.7 W/m-K at room temperature which is as twice as the value of thermal conductivity of amorphous spin-coated PVA membrane (0.35 W/m-K). The mechanism of enhancement are that, compared with amorphous membrane, the phonon scattering is attenuated and the crystallinity is improved in the electrospinning process. Our studies bring new insights in designing new kind of membrane with high thermal conductivity.
There is increasing demand for navigation capability for space vehicles. The idea to extend the application of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) from terrestrial to space applications by the use of main beam and side lobe signals has been shown to be feasible. In order to understand the performance and the potential space applications GNSS can support, this paper characterises the Space Service Volume (SSV) in terms of the four parameters of minimum received power, satellite visibility, pseudorange accuracy and Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP). This new definition enables the position errors to be estimated. An analytical methodology is proposed to characterise minimum received power for the worst location. Satellite visibility and GDOP are assessed based on grid points at different height layers (to capture the relationship between height and visibility) for single and multiple GNSS constellations, the former represented by BeiDou III (BDS III) and the latter, BDS III in various combinations with GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO. Additional simulation shows that GNSS can potentially support lunar exploration spacecraft at the Earth phasing orbit. This initial assessment of SSV shows the potential of GNSS for space vehicle navigation.
Traditionally, elder care in China has been confined to the familial sphere, long enshrined by the Confucian norm of filial piety. However, in recent years demographic shifts and rapid socioeconomic changes have escalated concerns about whether Chinese families will still be able to take care of a rapidly growing elderly population. These concerns are compounded by China’s one-child policy, which has been in effect for more than thirty years, further straining the capacities of family caregivers. Against this backdrop, formal long-term care services have emerged and expanded rapidly in China, a process catalysed both by government policies and private-sector initiatives.
In this chapter, we begin with an outline of the unprecedented challenges for Chinese elder care in the context of population ageing and profound socioeconomic transformations, followed by an overview of the evolving long-term care landscape in China. Next, we document the rise of formal long-term care services for the elderly, and summarize major policy efforts mounted by the Chinese government in spurring the growth of these services over the last decade. This is followed by a description of the current regulatory structure and process from the perspectives of both central and local government authorities. We conclude by highlighting the need for strengthening regulatory oversight through the building of an information infrastructure in this rapidly growing long-term care service sector.
In this study we investigated the importance of two species of fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti and Cynopterus sphinx) as seed dispersers for a species of fruit tree (Syzygium oblatum) found in the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden in South-West China. We found that although R. leschenaulti and C. sphinx were the two primary seed dispersers of S. oblatum over half of the fruit produced by the tree (65%) fell to the ground. Out of the fruit collected, R. leschenaulti and C. sphinx were able to disperse seeds up to 73 m from the parent tree with the highest density of feeding roosts occurring at 21.3 m (SE = 5.2 m). We found no signs that either species of bat used the parent tree as a feeding roost, instead choosing specific trees that were at lower densities compared with other trees in the forest that were not used. When comparing the viability of seeds in three different habitats (under parent tree, in forest gap, under feeding roost) survival analysis revealed that seedling survival was significantly higher in the forest gap (91.7% ± 4.41%) than under the parent tree (78.3% ± 1.67%), but was not significantly different to seedling survival underneath feeding roosts (86.7 ± 1.67%). Further work also showed that the seeds did not have to be removed from the fruit or ingested by the bat in order to germinate. We conclude that although S. oblatum is not dependent on R. leschenaulti and C. sphinx for successful germination of its seeds, these two species of bat are important seed dispersers and can move seeds to areas where there is a greater chance of germination success and survival.
Effect of heat treatment on the properties and microstructure of non-stoichiometric Ti-Mn based hydrogen storage alloys were investigated. The results were presented that the hydrogen storage capacity was increased and the width of P-C-T Plateau extended, but the slope of plateau increased after heat treatment. Through SEM, EDS and XRD analysis, it was found that the crystal parameters and cell volume was increased, meanwhile the composition homogeneity effectively enhanced and the content of C15 phase decreased after heat treatment. The accretion of slope of plateau would be related to the ratio of valence electron/atom of the alloys.
A series of experiments have been performed to verify the nature of hole trap A and B in GaAs proposed by Zou and revised by Zhou (one of the present authors). The relative concentration of these two Craps is responsible for the degradation behavior of the diodes. Accordingly, the degradation mechanism in GaAs LED can be reasonably deduced based on thermodynamic consideration.
Growing evidence shows that the deregulation of the circadian clock plays an important role in the development of malignant tumors, including gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms of genes controlling circadian rhythm in glioma cells have not been explored.
Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques, we examined the expression of two important clock genes, Per1 and Per2, in 33 gliomas.
In this study, out of 33 gliomas, 28 were Per1-positive, and 23 were Per2-positive. The expression levels of Per1 and Per2 in glioma cells were significantly different from the surrounding non-glioma cells (P<0.01). The difference in the expression rate of Per1 and Per2 in high-grade (grade III and IV) and low-grade (grade 1 and II) gliomas was insignificant (P>0.05). While there was no difference in the intensity of immunoactivity for Per2 between high-grade gliomas and low-grade gliomas (r=-0.330, P=0.061), the expression level of Per1 in highgrade gliomas was significantly lower than that in low-grade gliomas(r=-0.433, P=0.012).
In this study, we found that the expression of Per1 and Per2 in glioma cells was much lower than in the surrounding non-glioma cells. Therefore, we suggest that disturbances in Per1 and Per2 expression may result in the disruption of the control of normal circadian rhythm, thus benefiting the survival of glioma cells. Differential expression of circadian clock genes in glioma and non-glioma cells may provide a molecular basis for the chemotherapy of gliomas.
An electron-beam accelerator based on spiral water pulse forming line which consists of a primary storage capacitor system, an air core spiral strip transformer, a spiral pulse forming line of water dielectric, and a field-emission diode, is described. The experimental results showed that the diode voltage is more than 500 kV, the electron beam current of diode is about 24 kA, and the pulse duration is about 200 ns. The main parameters of the accelerator were calculated theoretically. The distributions for electrical field in the pulse forming line were obtained by the simulations. In addition, the process of the accelerator charging a spiral pulse forming line was simulated through the Pspice software to get the waveforms of charging voltage of pulse forming line, the diode voltage and diode current of accelerator. The theoretical and simulated results agree with the experimental results. This accelerator is very compact and works stably and reliably.
A high voltage pulse Tesla transformer with a coupling coefficient of 0.75 was designed and experimentally investigated. The transformer was employed to charge a spiral water pulse forming line (PFL) in a high current electron beam accelerator, and was featured by its compactness, stability, and reliability. When the primary input voltage is 55 kV, the transformer can charge the PFL to 720 kV with an energy conversion efficiency of 36%. The formulas for calculating the primary and secondary inductances of the transformer were deduced, with which the main parameters of the transformer were calculated theoretically. The distributions for electrical and magnetic fields in the transformer were obtained by the simulations of calculation. In addition, the process of an accelerator of the transformer charging a spiral PFL was simulated through the Pspice software to get the waveform of charging voltage, the diode voltage, and diode current of accelerator. The theoretical and simulated results agree with the experimental results.
A new nano-ternary Mg–8 mol% LaNi0.5 was prepared by melted and subsequent mechanical alloying technique for hydrogen storage. It was found from our experiments that, this kind of alloy had superior hydriding/dehydriding characteristics in comparison with conventional materials for hydrogen storage. It possessed large hydrogen capacity at a lower temperature, which could absorb 4.55–7.01 mass% H under 3 MPa hydrogen pressure and desorb 4.40–6.90 mass% H under 0.0133 MPa in 600 s above 423 K without any activation requirement drawn from our pressure-composition isotherm and kinetic experiments. Through the x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy experiments, we further found that these superior characteristics could be attributed to the multiphase structure and a catalytic effect of LaH3 and Mg2Ni that were formed in the material preparation of mechanical alloying process. Finally, based on these data the relationships between equilibrium pressure of hydrogen and temperature were obtained, they were lgp(0.1 MPa) = −3985/T + 7.188(553 K ⩽ T ⩽ 573K) for hydriding and lgp(0.1 MPa) = −3804/T + 6.770 (553 K ⩽ T ⩽ 573 K) for dehydriding.
as the largest labour flow in human history, the recent rise in migration in china has opened up unprecedented opportunities for millions of chinese to rearrange their lives. at the same time, this process has also posed great challenges to chinese migrants, especially female migrants, who not only face a bias against ‘outsiders’ but also have a greater need for reproductive health-related services in their migratory destinations. based on data collected via multiple sources in shanghai, china’s largest metropolis, this study profiles the changing characteristics of female migrants, presents data on self-reported symptoms of reproductive health-related problems and knowledge on reproductive health issues, compares maternal and child health measures between migrants and local residents, and examines factors related to reproductive health knowledge and migrants’ access to health care in urban china. results of this study show a relatively low level of self-reported reproductive health problems among female migrants, coupled with a relatively high level of ignorance in knowledge related to std. both self-reported health status and knowledge of reproductive health are related to migrants’ educational attainment and length of stay in the urban destination. this study also finds ample evidence that female migrants’ access to urban health care is limited by a number of institutional barriers.
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