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We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes “Murriyang” radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 years with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with ∼ 3 years of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux-density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations, and compare this data release with our previous release.
A new compact wideband filtering balun based on substrate-integrated suspended line technology is presented in this brief. The proposed device is composed of a λg/4 suspended stripline open-circuited stub, a λg/2 suspended stripline resonator, and a λg/2 suspended slotline resonator. These striplines and slotline are encapsulated in an electromagnetic (EM) shielding box consisting of air cavity, surrounding substrate layers, and metal layers to achieve EM shielding performance. By properly exciting the suspended stripline and slotline resonators, three transmission poles are generated to achieve high frequency selectively. The intrinsic 180∘ phase difference between the two output ports can be obtained by using the electric field distribution caused by the perpendicular coupling between the suspension stripline and the slotline resonator. The wideband passband is achieved with magnitude balance and out-of-phase properties. To validate our proposal, a wideband filtering balun operating at 2.56 GHz with fractional bandwidth of 65.6% is designed and fabricated.
Two wideband bandstop filters (BSFs) for single and dual-band are proposed and then extended to reflectionless BSFs based on the analysis from input impedance/admittance perspective. Also, topologies of higher-number-stopband input-reflectionless BSF are provided to broaden the design scope. Open/shorted coupled lines are adopted to obtain multi transmission zeros and desired stopband bandwidth by adjusting the even-/odd-mode impedance of coupled lines. Resistor-loaded coupled lines are connected with Port 1 to absorb unwanted signals and obtain input-reflectionless behavior. For validation of the proposed theory analysis, BSFs with corresponding absorptive prototypes are constructed and measured.
Genetic approaches are increasingly advantageous in characterizing treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). We aimed to identify TRS-associated functional brain proteins, providing a potential pathway for improving psychiatric classification and developing better-tailored therapeutic targets.
TRS-related proteome-wide association studies (PWAS) were conducted on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from CLOZUK and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), which provided TRS individuals (n = 10,501) and non-TRS individuals (n = 20,325), respectively. The reference datasets for the human brain proteome were obtained from ROS/MAP and Banner, with 8,356 and 11,518 proteins collected, respectively. We then performed colocalization analysis and functional enrichment analysis to further explore the biological functions of the proteins identified by PWAS.
In PWAS, two statistically significant proteins were identified using the ROS/MAP and then replicated using the Banner reference dataset, including CPT2 (PPWAS-ROS/MAP = 4.15 × 10−2 and PPWAS-Banner = 3.38 × 10−3) and APOL2 (PPWAS-ROS/MAP = 4.49 × 10−3 and PPWAS-Banner = 8.26 × 10−3). Colocalization analysis identified three variants that were causally related to protein expression in the human brain, including CCDC91 (PP4 = 0.981), PRDX1 (PP4 = 0.894), and WARS2 (PP4 = 0.757). We extended PWAS results from gene-based analysis to pathway-based analysis, identifying 14 gene ontology (GO) terms and the only candidate pathway for TRS, metabolic pathways (all P < 0.05).
Our results identified two protein biomarkers, and cautiously support that the pathological mechanism of TRS is linked to lipid oxidation and inflammation, where mitochondria-related functions may play a role.
Objectives: Medical devices and the hospital environment can be contaminated easily by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The effectiveness of cleaning practices is often suboptimal because environmental cleaning in hospitals is complex and depends on human factors, the physical and chemical characteristics of environment, and the viability of the microorganisms. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) lamps can be used to reduce the spread of microorganisms. We evaluated the effectiveness of an ultraviolet-C (UV-C) device on terminal room cleaning and disinfection. Methods: The study was conducted at an ICU of a medical center in Taiwan. We performed a 3-stage evaluation for the effectiveness of UV-C radiation, including pre–UV-C radiation, UV-C radiation, and a bleaching procedure. The 3 stages of evaluation were implemented in the ICU rooms from which a patient had been discharged or transferred. We collected the data from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence testing, colonized strains, and their corresponding colony counts by sampling from the environmental surfaces and air. We tested 8 high-touch surfaces, including 2 sides of bed rails, headboards, footboards, bedside tables, monitors, pumping devices, IV stands, and oxygen flow meters. Results: In total, 1,696 environmental surfaces and 72 air samples were analyzed. The levels of ATP bioluminescence and colony counts of isolated bacteria decreased significantly after UV-C radiation and bleaching disinfection for both the environmental and air samples (P < .001). Resistant bacteria (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, VRE) were commonly isolated on the hard-to-clean surfaces of monitors, oxygen flow meters, and IV pumps. However, they were also eradicated (P < .001). Conclusions: UV-C can significantly reduce environmental contamination by multidrug-resistant microorganisms. UV-C is an effective device to assist staff in cleaning the hospital environment.
To explore the effect of yield stress on the secondary breakup of gel drops, experimental and theoretical investigations are carried out by employing a high-speed camera. A unique hemline-type breakup, as a modified behaviour of sheet-thinning breakup, occurs when the air velocity increases to a high region. The edges of the drops constantly deform into thin membranes when the high-velocity air skims over the gel drops. These membranes vibrate vertically, and breaking points occur at high amplitudes, causing the formation of reticular fragments. The results of linear stability analysis indicated that the yield stress of the gel drops has an influence on the formation and breakup of the gel membranes. The breakup regime map and breakup times are also studied.
Recently, the collisionless pitch-angle scattering for relativistic runaway electrons (REs) in toroidal geometries such as tokamaks was discovered through a full orbit simulation approach (Liu et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 56, 2016, p. 064002), and it was then theoretically investigated that a new expression for the magnetic moment, including the second-order corrections, could essentially reproduce the so-called collisionless pitch-angle scattering process (Liu et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 58, 2018, p. 106018). In this paper, with synchrotron radiation, extensive numerical verification of the validity of the high-order guiding-centre theory is given for simulations involving REs by incorporating such an expression for the magnetic moment into our particle tracing code. A high-order guiding-centre simulation approach with synchrotron radiation (HGSA) is applied. Synchrotron radiation plays an essential role in the life cycle of REs. The energy of REs first increases and then becomes saturated until the electric field acceleration is balanced by the radiation dissipation. Unfortunately, the process cannot be simulated accurately with the standard guiding-centre model, i.e. the first-order guiding-centre model. Remarkably, it is found that the HGSA can effectively produce the fundamental process of REs. Since the time scale of the energy saturation of REs is close to seconds, the computational cost becomes significant. In order to save costs, it is necessary to estimate the time of energy saturation. An analytical estimate is derived for the time it takes for synchrotron drag to balance an accelerating electric field and the provided formula has been numerically verified. Test calculations reveal that HGSA is favourable for exploiting the dynamics of REs in tokamak plasmas.
In this study, a toroidal quartz (
) crystal is designed for monochromatic X-ray imaging at 72.3°. The designed crystal produces excellent images of a laser-produced plasma emitting He-like Ti X-rays at 4.75 keV. Based on the simulations, the imaging resolutions of the spherical and toroidal crystals in the sagittal direction are found to be 15 and 5 μm, respectively. Moreover, the simulation results show that a higher resolution image of the source can be obtained by using a toroidal crystal. An X-ray backlight imaging experiment is conducted using 4.75 keV He-like Ti X-rays, a 3 × 3 metal grid, an imaging plate and a toroidal quartz crystal with a lattice constant of 2d = 0.2749 nm. The meridional and sagittal radii of the toroidal α-quartz crystal are 295.6 and 268.5 mm, respectively. A highly resolved image of the microgrid, with a spatial resolution of 10 μm, is obtained in the experiment. By using similar toroidal crystal designs, the application of a spatially resolved spectrometer with high-resolution X-ray imaging ability is capable of providing imaging data with the same magnification ratio in the sagittal and meridional planes.
Since embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were first identified, significant progress has been achieved. However, the establishment of buffalo ESCs (bESCs) is still unclear. This study was undertaken to explore the effect of the blastocyst stage on the isolation of bESCs. Firstly, our results indicated that the pluripotent genes were mainly expressed at the early stages of blastocyst, and the attachment and colony formation rates of bESCs derived from expanded blastocyst and hatched blastocyst were significantly higher than early blastocyst and blastocyst. In the meantime, bESCs showed positive alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed genes like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-MYC, CDH1, KLF4, and TBX3. Immunofluorescence also confirmed the expression of OCT4, SOX2. Embryoid bodies expressing three marker genes were generated from the differentiation experiment, and fibroblast, epithelial, and neuron-like cells were induced. Moreover, naive-related genes KLF4, TBX3, primed-related genes FGF5, ACTA2 were expressed in the cells, but not REX-1. Immunofluorescence and western blot confirmed the FGF5 expression. Furthermore, bESCs could maintain pluripotency with the signal of LIF and bFGF. In summary, our results indicated that expanded blastocyst and hatched blastocyst are more suitable for bESCs isolation.
Based on hubs of neural circuits associated with addiction and their degree centrality (DC), this study aimed to construct the addiction-related brain networks for patients diagnosed with heroin dependence undertaking stable methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and further prospectively identify the ones at high risk for relapse with cluster analysis.
Sixty-two male MMT patients and 30 matched healthy controls (HC) underwent brain resting-state functional MRI data acquisition. The patients received 26-month follow-up for the monthly illegal-drug-use information. Ten addiction-related hubs were chosen to construct a user-defined network for the patients. Then the networks were discriminated with K-means-clustering-algorithm into different groups and followed by comparative analysis to the groups and HC. Regression analysis was used to investigate the brain regions significantly contributed to relapse.
Sixty MMT patients were classified into two groups according to their brain-network patterns calculated by the best clustering-number-K. The two groups had no difference in the demographic, psychological indicators and clinical information except relapse rate and total heroin consumption. The group with high-relapse had a wider range of DC changes in the cortical−striatal−thalamic circuit relative to HC and a reduced DC in the mesocorticolimbic circuit relative to the low-relapse group. DC activity in NAc, vACC, hippocampus and amygdala were closely related with relapse.
MMT patients can be identified and classified into two subgroups with significantly different relapse rates by defining distinct brain-network patterns even if we are blind to their relapse outcomes in advance. This may provide a new strategy to optimize MMT.
There have been growing uses of semantic networks in the past decade, such as leveraging large-scale pre-trained graph knowledge databases for various natural language processing (NLP) tasks in engineering design research. Therefore, the paper provides a survey of the research that has employed semantic networks in the engineering design research community. The survey reveals that engineering design researchers have primarily relied on WordNet, ConceptNet, and other common-sense semantic network databases trained on non-engineering data sources to develop methods or tools for engineering design. Meanwhile, there are emerging efforts to mine large scale technical publication and patent databases to construct engineering-contextualized semantic network databases, e.g., B-Link and TechNet, to support NLP in engineering design. On this basis, we recommend future research directions for the construction and applications of engineering-related semantic networks in engineering design research and practice.
In this paper, the inverse kinematics (IK) of redundant manipulators is presented and studied, where the performance of end-effector path planning is guaranteed. A new Jacobian pseudoinverse (JP)-based IK method is proposed and studied using a typical numerical difference rule to discretize the existing IK method based on JP. The proposed method is depicted in a discrete-time form and is theoretically proven to exhibit great performance in the IK of redundant manipulators. A discrete-time repetitive path planning (DTRPP) scheme and a discrete-time obstacle avoidance (DTOA) scheme are developed for redundant manipulators using the proposed method. Comparative simulations are conducted on a universal robot manipulator and a PA10 robot manipulator to validate the effectiveness and superior performance of the DTRPP scheme, the DTOA scheme, and the proposed JP-based IK method.
The Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and Arctic both have an important influence on global climate, but the correlation between climate variations in these two regions remains unclear. Here we reconstructed and compared the summer temperature anomalies over the past 1,120 yr (900–2019 CE) in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and Arctic. The temperature correlation during the past millennium in these two regions has a distinct centennial variation caused by volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the abrupt weak-to-strong transition in the temperature correlation during the sixteenth century could be analogous to this type of transition during the Modern Warm Period. The former was forced by volcanic eruptions, while the latter was controlled by changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that anthropogenic, as opposed to natural, forcing has acted to amplify the teleconnection between the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and Arctic during the Modern Warm Period.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds vast potential in agriculture. However, its applications are still limited by its low efficiency. Histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) was identified as an epigenetic barrier for this. Histone demethylase KDM4D could regulate the level of H3K9me3. However, its effects on buffalo SCNT embryos are still unclear. Thus, we performed this study to explore the effects and underlying mechanism of KDM4D on buffalo SCNT embryos. The results revealed that compared with the IVF embryos, the expression level of KDM4D in SCNT embryos was significantly lower at 8- and 16-cell stage, while the level of H3K9me3 in SCNT embryos was significantly higher at 2-cell, 8-cell, and blastocyst stage. Microinjection of KDM4D mRNA could promote the developmental ability of buffalo SCNT embryos. Furthermore, the expression level of ZGA-related genes such as ZSCAN5B, SNAI1, eIF-3a, and TRC at the 8-cell stage was significantly increased. Meanwhile, the pluripotency-related genes like POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG were also significantly promoted at the blastocyst stage. The results were reversed after KDM4D was inhibited. Altogether, these results revealed that KDM4D could correct the H3K9me3 level, increase the expression level of ZGA and pluripotency-related genes, and finally, promote the developmental competence of buffalo SCNT embryos.
The disease burden of infectious diarrhea cannot be underestimated. Its seasonal patterns indicate that weather patterns may play an important role and have an important effect on it. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between temperature and infectious diarrhea, and diarrhea-like illness.
Distributed lag non-linear model, which was based on the definition of a cross-basis, was used to examine the effect.
Viral diarrhea usually had high incidence in autumn-winter and spring with a peak at -6°C; Norovirus circulated throughout the year with an insignificant peak at 8°C, while related bacteria usually tested positive in summer and peaked at 22°C. The lag-response curve of the proportion of diarrhea-like cases in outpatient and emergency cases revealed that at -6°C, with the lag days increasing, the proportion increased. Similar phenomena were observed at the beginning of the curves of virus and bacterial positive rate, showing that the risk increased as the lag days increased, peaking on days 16 and 9, respectively. The shape of lag-response curve of norovirus positive rate was different from others, presenting m-type, with 2 peaks on day 3 and day 18.
Weather patterns should be taken into account when developing surveillance programs and formulating relevant public health intervention strategies.
The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines recommend the Royal Free Hospital-Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) to identify malnutrition risk in patients with liver disease. However, little is known about the application of the RFH-NPT to screen for the risk of malnutrition in China, where patients primarily suffer from hepatitis virus-related cirrhosis. A total of 155 cirrhosis patients without liver cancer or uncontrolled co-morbid illness were enrolled in this prospective study. We administered the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), RFH-NPT, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Liver Disease Undernutrition Screening Tool (LDUST) to the patients within 24 h after admission and performed follow-up observations for 1·5 years. The RFH-NPT and NRS-2002 had higher sensitivities (64·8 and 52·4 %) and specificities (60 and 70 %) than the other tools with regard to screening for malnutrition risk in cirrhotic patients. The prevalence of nutritional risk was higher under the use of the RFH-NPT against the NRS-2002 (63 v. 51 %). The RFH-NPT tended more easily to detect malnutrition risk in patients with advanced Child–Pugh classes (B and C) and lower Model for End-stage Liver Disease scores (<15) compared with NRS-2002. RFH-NPT score was an independent predictive factor for mortality. Patients identified as being at high malnutrition risk with the RFH-NPT had a higher mortality rate than those at low risk; the same result was not obtained with the NRS-2002. Therefore, we suggest that using the RFH-NPT improves the ability of clinicians to predict malnutrition risk in patients with cirrhosis primarily caused by hepatitis virus infection at an earlier stage.
The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. The viral shedding duration was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the prognostic factors were analysed by univariate log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. A retrospective study was carried out with patients with COVID-19 in Tianjin, China. A total of 185 patients were included, 27 (14.59%) of whom were severely ill at the time of discharge and three (1.6%) of whom died. Our findings demonstrate that patients with an advanced age, diabetes, a low PaO2/FiO2 value and delayed treatment should be carefully monitored for disease progression to reduce the incidence of severe disease. Hypoproteinaemia and the fever duration warrant special attention. Timely interventions in symptomatic patients and a time from symptom onset to treatment <4 days can shorten the duration of viral shedding.
We present a long-term seasonal tree ring cellulose oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) time series created by analyzing four segments (S1, S2, S3, and S4) per year during the period of 1951–2009 from southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This intraseasonal δ18Oc reveals the onset and mature phase of the summer monsoon precipitation in this region. Analysis indicates that the δ18Oc of S1 has the strongest correlation with precipitation during the regional monsoon onset (29–33 pentads, May 21–June 10, r = −0.69), and the δ18Oc values for S2, S3, and S4 correlate strongly with June, July, and August precipitation, respectively. Combined δ18Oc of S2, S3, and S4 shows the most robust correlation (r = −0.82) with the mature-phase monsoon precipitation (June-July-August, JJA), passing rigorous statistical tests for calibration and verification in dendroclimatology. These results demonstrate the feasibility in using long-term intraseasonal δ18Oc to reconstruct the Asian summer monsoon's intraseasonal variations.