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The disease burden of infectious diarrhea cannot be underestimated. Its seasonal patterns indicate that weather patterns may play an important role and have an important effect on it. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between temperature and infectious diarrhea, and diarrhea-like illness.
Distributed lag non-linear model, which was based on the definition of a cross-basis, was used to examine the effect.
Viral diarrhea usually had high incidence in autumn-winter and spring with a peak at -6°C; Norovirus circulated throughout the year with an insignificant peak at 8°C, while related bacteria usually tested positive in summer and peaked at 22°C. The lag-response curve of the proportion of diarrhea-like cases in outpatient and emergency cases revealed that at -6°C, with the lag days increasing, the proportion increased. Similar phenomena were observed at the beginning of the curves of virus and bacterial positive rate, showing that the risk increased as the lag days increased, peaking on days 16 and 9, respectively. The shape of lag-response curve of norovirus positive rate was different from others, presenting m-type, with 2 peaks on day 3 and day 18.
Weather patterns should be taken into account when developing surveillance programs and formulating relevant public health intervention strategies.
To determine which set of BMI cut-offs is the most appropriate to define child and adolescent obesity in urban China.
A cross-sectional study was carried out between 1 November and 31 December in 2017.
Community Healthcare Center in Minhang District, Shanghai, China.
A total of 12 426 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years were selected by cluster random sampling. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was the gold standard to measure body composition.
Comparisons of three sets of BMI cut-offs by sensitivity and κ value revealed that the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) (sensitivity 39·9–84·0 %; κ 0·51–0·79) and WHO (sensitivity 25·5–74·5 %; κ 0·35–0·78) cut-offs were not superior to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) (sensitivity 47·9–92·4 %; κ 0·58–0·85) cut-offs across all subgroups. The WGOC and WHO cut-offs yielded higher misclassification rates, in the worst case, categorising 11·2 % of girls with high adiposity as normal and 44·4 % of them as overweight, while the IOTF cut-offs categorised 2·3 % as normal and 30·7 % as overweight. Individuals who were classified by the IOTF cut-offs as overweight had the lowest ratios of high adiposity (4·2–41·6 %) than by the BMI cut-offs for each subgroup. Among pubertal girls, none of the BMI-based cut-offs indicated excellent agreement with body fat percentage, and κ value of the WHO cut-offs (0·35 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·41)) was lower than the other two sets of BMI cut-offs (all P < 0·001).
The IOTF cut-offs for Asian should be recommended for child obesity screening in urban China. Pubertal individuals need a more accurate indicator of obesity screening.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
A magnetic dipole quasi-Yagi antenna based on a dielectric resonator (DR) is proposed in this letter. The dominate TE1δ1 mode of the rectangular DR is used as a magnetic dipole which can be differentially fed by the coplanar strip line (CPS). Thanks to the DR employment, the proposed antenna has several advantages such as compact size and flexible design which means the 3-D dimensions of the DR can be easily adjusted to cater for various applications. Meanwhile, the gain of the proposed DR quasi-Yagi antenna is higher than that of traditional electric dipole counterparts. Furthermore, since the DR driver is horizontally polarized, both the metal strip and DR can be used as a director for enhancing the end-fire gain. To verify the design concept, a prototype operating at the X-band is fabricated and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed.
Electrospun coaxial fibers are used to create core/sheath fiber structures to act as growth-promoting scaffolds for in vitro dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cell cultures. The core was a conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and the sheath was poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), which created coaxial fibers with a conductive core and an insulating sheath. SEM analysis confirmed the conductivity of the core and insulation of the sheath. Several coaxial spinneret designs were tested with the best results obtained by using various annular spinning needle combinations. Using a 22G/16G and 22G/17G combination, fibers with diameters of 6.1 ± 2.4 µm and 3.3 ± 0.9 µm were spun, respectively. The fibers showed a Young’s modulus and hardness of 0.16 ± 0.13 and 0.02 ± 0.01 GPa for the larger diameters, and 0.7 ± 0.4 and 0.03 ± 0.03 GPa for the smaller diameter fibers. In vitro test cultures showed the fibers successfully directed chick DRG axonal outgrowth with low biotoxicity.
We show that chief executive officers (CEOs) exhibit a hometown bias in acquisitions. Firms are over twice as likely to acquire targets located in the states of their CEOs’ childhood homes than similar targets domiciled elsewhere. Small, private home-state deals underperform other small, private deals, and the bias is stronger when acquirer governance is lax, suggesting that CEOs acquire private home-state targets for their own benefits. In contrast, large, public home-state acquisitions are value enhancing. CEOs create value in public home-state acquisitions by avoiding extremely poor deals and through deals with higher synergies. Thus, both agency issues and hometown advantages drive home-state acquisitions.
We document that a firm’s culture, specifically, its religiosity, affects its cost of debt. Firms in higher-religiosity counties have higher credit ratings and lower debt costs. The impact of religiosity is stronger for firms with greater information asymmetry and during recessions. Further, religiosity has additional explanatory power for the cost of bank loans (but not the cost of public bonds) beyond its impact through ratings. This supports the argument that banks have superior abilities in pricing soft information, such as corporate culture. Finally, the impact of religiosity is stronger when the lender is a small bank.
Nanotechnology has been considered as a promising strategy for diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. However, the stability and circulation times of the conventional nano-carriers, such as liposomes and micelles, are still unsatisfied. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are biologic inert synthetic materials, which are highly hydrophobic and have a tendency to self-aggregation. Additionally, PFCs themselves can act as 19F magnetic resonance imaging agents and oxygen carriers. Thus, the construction of the fluorinated carriers will not only improve the stability of the carriers, but also endow them with additional functions. Here we review the recent advances of PFC-based nanosystems for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Elder self-neglect (ESN) has become a public health issue globally. Limited studies have focused on ESN, as well as the relationship between ESN and quality of life (QoL) in developing countries. The study's objective is to explore the association between ESN and QoL among rural elderly in China.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3,182 elder adults aged 60 years or older, using a cluster-sampling technique in one township in Dangtu, a county in Anhui province. All participants completed face-to-face interview in their household. QoL was assessed using a brief form of the World Health Organization's quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), and ESN was assessed using the Scale of the Elderly Self-neglect (SESN). Hierarchical linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the ESN scores and QoL scores after adjusting for sociodemographic, social support, and physical and psychological variables.
The scores of overall ESN and five domains were significantly correlated with the scores of four QoL domains (p < 0.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, social support, and physical and psychological health characteristics, elders who reported higher overall self-neglect scores had significantly lower scores in the four QoL domains (p < 0.001). Education, economic level, physical health, ADL, depression, and cognitive function are consistent predictors across all QoL domains.
ESN is an independent risk factor for poor QoL in elderly people in rural China. Understanding the role of ESN and its influence on QoL is important for the management of and intervention in ESN.
The acquisition and tracking strategies of the BeiDou navigation satellite signals are affected by the modulation of Neumann-Hoffman code (NH code), which increases the complexity of receiver baseband signal processing. Based on the analysis of probability statistics of the NH code, a special sequence of incoming signals is proposed to evade the bit transitions caused by the NH code, and an NH Code Evasion and Stripping method (NCES) based on the NH-pre-modulated code is proposed. The NCES can be applied in both 20-bit NH code and 10-bit NH code. The fine acquisition eliminates the impact of NH code on the traditional tracking loop. These methods were verified with a BeiDou PC-based software-defined receiver using the actual sampled signals. Compared with other acquisition schemes which try to determine or ignore the NH code phase, the NCES needs fewer incoming signals and the actual runtime is greatly reduced without sacrificing much time to search in the secondary code dimension, and the success rate of acquisition is effectively improved. An extension of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based parallel code-phase search acquisition gives the NCES an advantage in engineering applications.
Two transmission curved crystal spectrometers are designed to measure the hard x-ray emission in the laser fusion experiment of Compton radiography of implosion target on ShenGuang-III laser facility in China. Cylindrically curved
-quartz (10–11) crystals with curvature radii of 150 and 300 mm are used to cover spectral ranges of 10–56 and 17–100 keV, respectively. The distance between the crystal and the x-ray source can be changed over a broad distance from 200 to 1500 mm. The optical design, including the integral reflectivity of the curved crystal, the sensitivity, and the spectral resolution of the spectrometers, is discussed. We also provide mechanic design details and experimental results using a Mo anode x-ray source. High-quality spectra were obtained. We confirmed that the spectral resolution can be improved by increasing the working distance, which is the distance between the recording medium and the Rowland circle.
From continental to regional scales, the zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (caused by Echinococcus multilocularis) forms discrete patches of endemicity within which transmission hotspots of much larger prevalence may occur. Since the late 80s, a number of hotspots have been identified in continental Asia, mostly in China, wherein the ecology of intermediate host communities has been described. This is the case in south Gansu, at the eastern border of the Tibetan plateau, in south Ningxia, in the western Tian Shan of Xinjiang, and in the Alay valley of south Kyrgyzstan. Here we present a comparative natural history and characteristics of transmission ecosystems or ecoscapes. On this basis, regional types of transmission and their ecological characteristics have been proposed in a general framework. Combining climatic, land cover and intermediate host species distribution data, we identified and mapped 4 spatially distinct types of transmission ecosystems typified by the presence of one of the following small mammal ‘flagship’ species: Ellobius tancrei, Ochotona curzoniae, Lasiopodomys brandtii or Eospalax fontanierii. Each transmission ecosystem had its own characteristics which can serve as a reference for further in-depth research in the transmission ecology of E. multilocularis. This approach may be used at fine spatial scales to characterize other poorly known transmission systems of the large Eurasian endemic zone, and help in consideration of surveillance systems and interventions.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
In order to investigate the dynamics of Septin4 (Sept4) expression and its function in the formation of fibrotic livers in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, we constructed the mouse model of S. japonicum egg-induced liver fibrosis for 24 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining, qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of Sept4 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). We found Sept4 localized in the perisinusoidal space where hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) distribute in the periphery of circumoval granulomas and the portal venule. The expression of Sept4 and α-SMA had a similar significant tendency of an up-regulation to a peak at 12 weeks post-infection (p.i.) followed by a down-regulation. At 24 weeks p.i. both were at a low level. These results suggest that Sept4 and α-SMA may interact together in HSCs. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that Sept4 seems to be involved in the formation of inflammatory granulomata and subsequent liver fibrosis by regulating HSCs activation.
An efficient AHL (N-acyl-homoserine lactone) bioassay strain, JZA1, of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to detect the AHL production from Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli [the pathogen causing bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of melons], and the results showed that A. avenae subsp. citrulli produced a 3-O-C8-homoserine (HSL) type signal molecule. Gene aiiA, which could degrade AHL molecules, was transformed into A. avenae subsp. citrulli strain NJF10, creating strain NJF10-aiiA. The AHL production from NJF10-aiiA was significantly reduced compared with wild-type NJF10. Inoculation tests showed that NJF10-aiiA had an obvious reduction of virulence on watermelon fruits. Our finds showed that AHL production by A. avenae subsp. citrulli was related to its pathogenicity. This work might provide a novel way to control BFB by QS (quorum sensing) interference.
Photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to study the Si nanocrystals formed in the thermal oxide by Si+ implantation. PL results estimate the size of nanocrystals and the concentration of Pb centers in the Si-SiO2 nanocrystal-matrix interfaces. It is shown that the size of Si nanocrystals increase with implantation dose. Increasing the dose from 1×1016 to 1×1017 Si+/cm2 shifts the size of nanocrystals from ~2 nm to ~3.5nm, while prolonging the annealing time from 1h to 2h has no effect on the position of PL peak. P and Ar implantations into the SiO2 films are also investigated to suggested that the PL peak is due to implant induced chemical changes rather than implant induced damage. XPS analysis shows that the concentration of Si nanocrystals increases with Si implantation dose. Research on the annealing dependence of the forming of Si nanocrystals suggests that 1000°C annealing produces larger amount of Si nanocrystals than 1100°C annealing.
With the changing patterns of morbidity and mortality in China, noncommunicable chronic diseases have become the major threats to the health of the Chinese population. The causes of chronic diseases include genetic factors and behavioral risk factors such as the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, unhealthy dietary behaviors, and lack of physical activity. Twin studies offer a unique opportunity to disentangle the genetic and environmental risk and protective factors for chronic disease. The Qingdao Twin Registry (QTR) was initiated in 1998 as part of the National Chinese Twin Registry. Over 11,000 pairs of twins and multiples of all ages have been recruited into the registry. Several studies of physical and mental health are underway. Many of the adult twins have completed health and behavioral risk factor surveys, and the adolescent twins are participating in a study of gene–environment interactions in tobacco and alcohol use. Studies of the heritability of personality factors have been conducted. In 2002, Qingdao established the Qingdao Twin Health Promotion Association, a nonprofit organization that supports health services for twins and their parents, organizes special events and health-related activities for twins, and raises funds to conduct twin health examinations. The QTR will be a useful resource for future studies of population genetics in human health and disease.
Antipsychotic drugs exert both therapeutic and adverse effects through dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) antagonism. Genetic variants of this receptor may be responsible for individual variations in neuroleptic response and may therefore be useful in predicting response. In this study we evaluated the role of six polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene in 125 risperidone-treated Chinese schizophrenia patients following the hypothesis that variation in the DRD2 gene could affect drug response. Response was categorized as a change of >40% on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Our results show that genotyping A-241G may help to predict the efficacy of risperidone treatment on the basis that patients with the A allele showed greater improvement than those with the G allele on the overall BPRS (χ2=7.19, p=0.007, p=0.031 after correction by the program SNPSpD), while other polymorphisms, including −141C Ins/Del, TaqIB, rs1076562, T939C and TaqIA, did not show any association with the response to risperidone. These data suggest that the DRD2 A-241G polymorphism or, alternatively, another genetic variation that is in linkage disequilibrium, may influence response to risperidone in schizophrenia patients.
The crystal structure of La0.67Ca0.33Mn0.80Cu0.20O3 (LCMCO) compound was determined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and refined by the Rietveld method. LCMCO is isostructural with La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO). The crystal data are: La0.64Ca0.36Mn0.82Cu0.18O3.01, Mr=843.80, orthorhombic system, space group Pnma, a=5.4364(1) Å, b=7.6725(2) Å, c=5.4452(1) Å, V=227.124(8)Å3, Z=4, Dx=6.168 g∕cm3. In comparing with the Cu-free compound, subtle structural changes such as bond lengths and bond angles found in the Cu-doped compound may be responsible for the larger effects on the transport and magnetic properties when Cu partially substitutes for Mn in CMCO.
Ge–Si inverted huts, which formed at the Si∕Ge interface of Si∕Ge superlattice grown at low temperatures, have been measured by X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray specular and off-specular reflectivities, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface of the Si∕Ge superlattice is smooth, and there are no Ge–Si huts appearing on the surface. The roughness of the surfaces is less than 3 Å. Large lattice strain induced by lattice mismatch between Si and Ge is found to be relaxed because of the intermixing of Ge and Si at the Si∕Ge interface.