To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Radiation exposure during paediatric cardiac catheterisation procedures should be minimised to “as low as reasonably achievable”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified radiation safety protocol in reducing patient dose during paediatric interventional cardiac catheterisation.
Radiation dose data were retrospectively extracted from January 2014 to December 2015 (Standard group) and prospectively collected from January 2016 to December 2017 (Low-dose group) after implementation of a modified radiation safety protocol. Both groups included five most common procedures: atrial septal defect closure, patent ductus arteriosus closure, perimembranous ventricular septal defect closure, pulmonary valvuloplasty, and supraventricular tachycardia ablation.
Median air Kerma was 48.4, 50.5, 29.75, 149, 218, and 12.9 mGy for atrial septal defect closure, pulmonary valvuloplasty, patent ductus arteriosus closure <20 kg, ventricular septal defect closure <20 kg, ventricular septal defect closure ≧20 kg, and supraventricular tachycardia ablation in Standard group, respectively, which significantly decreased to 18.75, 20.7, 11.5, 41.9, 117, and 3.3 mGy in Low-dose group (p < 0.05). This represents a reduction in dose to each patient between 46 and 74%. Among five procedural types in Low-dose group, dose of ventricular septal defect closure was the highest with median air Kerma of 62.5 mGy, dose area product of 364.7 μGy.m2, and dose area product per body weight of 21.5 μGy.m2/kg, respectively, along with the longest fluoroscopy time of 9.9 minutes.
We provided a feasible radiation safety protocol with specific settings on a case-by-case basis. Increasing awareness and adequate training of a practical radiation dose reduction program are essential to improve radiation protection for children.
Photocatalytic water splitting to form hydrogen can effectively alleviate energy and environmental problems attracting wide attention. However, the current photocatalysts have low photocatalytic efficiencies due to the narrow absorption spectrum, which is far from the actual application requirements. Herein, we use the as-prepared zinc porphyrin self-assemblies to visible-light-drive photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with Pt as the cocatalyst and ascorbic acid (AA) as the sacrificial agent. The results exhibit morphology-dependent performance and hexagonal stacks achieved optimal H2 evolution rate (47.1 mmol/h/g), then followed by nanodiscs, nanorod and tetragonal stacks, meanwhile the nanorods with different aspect ratios show size-dependent properties. The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra and the shortening of decay time of the corresponding ZnTPyP aggregates reveal that the well-defined self-assembled porphyrin networks are J-aggregation and boost efficient energy transfer with respect to monomer. Such porphyrin self-assemblies are standing for one of the most promising photosensitizers in photocatalysis field and provide an important reference for designing the next generation of hydrogen production.
The design and engineering of the size and shapes of photoactive building blocks enable the fabrication of functional nanocrystals, especially for applications in light harvesting, photocatalytic synthesis, water splitting, and photodegradation. Synthesis of such nanocrystals has been demonstrated recently through noncovalent interactions such as π–π stacking and ligand coordination using optically active porphyrin as a functional building block. Depending on the kinetic conditions, the resulting nanocrystals exhibit well-defined one- to three-dimensional shapes such as spheres, nanowires, and nano-octahedra. These well-defined porphyrin nanocrystals show interesting size- and shape-dependent photocatalytic activity. This article reviews the synthesis and formation of porphyrin nanocrystals with controlled size and shape. Important photocatalytic processes such as photodegradation of organic pollutants, photocatalytic water splitting and hydrogen production, and photosynthesis of metallic fuel-cell catalysts are highlighted. Insights on size- and shape-dependent properties are discussed.
We study numerically the dynamics of an insoluble surfactant-laden droplet in a simple shear flow taking surface viscosity into account. The rheology of drop surface is modelled via a Boussinesq–Scriven constitutive law with both surface tension and surface viscosity depending strongly on the surface concentration of the surfactant. Our results show that the surface viscosity exhibits non-trivial effects on the surfactant transport on the deforming drop surface. Specifically, both dilatational and shear surface viscosity tend to eliminate the non-uniformity of surfactant concentration over the drop surface. However, their underlying mechanisms are entirely different; that is, the shear surface viscosity inhibits local convection due to its suppression on drop surface motion, while the dilatational surface viscosity inhibits local dilution due to its suppression on local surface dilatation. By comparing with previous studies of droplets with surface viscosity but with no surfactant transport, we find that the coupling between surface viscosity and surfactant transport induces non-negligible deviations in the dynamics of the whole droplet. More particularly, we demonstrate that the dependence of surface viscosity on local surfactant concentration has remarkable influences on the drop deformation. Besides, we analyse the full three-dimensional shape of surfactant-laden droplets in simple shear flow and observe that the drop shape can be approximated as an ellipsoid. More importantly, this ellipsoidal shape can be described by a standard ellipsoidal equation with only one unknown owing to the finding of an unexpected relationship among the drop’s three principal axes. Moreover, this relationship remains the same for both clean and surfactant-laden droplets with or without surface viscosity.
Previous studies on capsule dynamics in shear flow have dealt with Newtonian fluids, while the effect of fluid viscoelasticity remains an unresolved fundamental question. In this paper, we report a numerical investigation of the dynamics of capsules enclosing a viscoelastic fluid and which are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid under simple shear. Systematic simulations are performed at small but non-zero Reynolds numbers (i.e.
) using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model, in which the fluid viscoelasticity is introduced via the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. We demonstrate that the internal fluid viscoelasticity presents significant effects on the deformation behaviour of initially spherical capsules, including transient evolution and equilibrium values of their deformation and orientation. Particularly, the capsule deformation decreases slightly with the Deborah number De increasing from 0 to
. In contrast, with De increasing within high levels, i.e.
, the capsule deformation increases continuously and eventually approaches the Newtonian limit having a viscosity the same as the Newtonian part of the viscoelastic capsule. By analysing the viscous stress, pressure and viscoelastic stress acting on the capsule membrane, we reveal that the mechanism underlying the effects of the internal fluid viscoelasticity on the capsule deformation is the alterations in the distribution of the viscoelastic stress at low De and its magnitude at high De, respectively. Furthermore, we find some new features in the dynamics of initially non-spherical capsules induced by the internal fluid viscoelasticity. Particularly, the transition from tumbling to swinging of oblate capsules can be triggered at very high viscosity ratios by increasing De alone. Besides, the critical viscosity ratio for the tumbling-to-swinging transition is remarkably enlarged with De increasing at relatively high levels, i.e.
, while it shows little change at low De, i.e. below
In this paper, a new type of stabilized finite element method is discussed for Oseen equations based on the local L2 projection stabilized technique for the velocity field. Velocity and pressure are approximated by two kinds of mixed finite element spaces, Pl2–P1, (l = 1,2). A main advantage of the proposed method lies in that, all the computations are performed at the same element level, without the need of nested meshes or the projection of the gradient of velocity onto a coarse level. Stability and convergence are proved for two kinds of stabilized schemes. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.
The oxidation behavior of nonstoichiometric Ti2AlCx (x = 0.69) powders synthesized by combustion synthesis was investigated in flowing air by means of simultaneous thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy, with an effect of powder size. The oxidation of the fine Ti2AlC powders with the size of about 1 μm starts at 300 °C and completes at 980 °C, while with increasing the powder size around 10 μm the corresponding temperature increases to 400 and 1040 °C, respectively. The oxidation of nonstoichiometric Ti2AlCx (x = 0.69) powders is controlled by surface reaction in 400–600 °C, and mainly diffusion in 600–900 °C, with the corresponding oxidation activation energy of 2.35 eV and 0.12 eV, respectively. In other words, the critical temperature of changing oxidation controlling step is around 600 °C. The oxidation products were mainly rutile-TiO2 and α-Al2O3. The tiny white flocculent particles of α-Al2O3 appeared on the surface of fine Ti2AlC powders and increased with increasing the oxidation temperature.
The on-site hydrogen supply is a key issue for the commercialization of the fuel cells, which is one of the important ways for realizing a hydrogen-economy society. Composite NaNH2–NaBH4 is regarded as a promising high-capacity hydrogen storage material. In this paper, the composite NaNH2–NaBH4 (2/1) was synthesized via a solid-state ball milling method. To improve the hydrogen generation kinetics, a multiplex metal boride Mg–Co–B was selected as the catalyst. It was found that Na3BN2 and metal Na were byproducts in the thermal decomposed sample by X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicated that the main decomposition stages of the catalyst promoted NaNH2–NaBH4 material were split into three stages. The activation energy of the Mg–Co–B promoted NaNH2–NaBH4 (2/1) material below 300 °C was 76.4 KJ/mol, which is only 47.9% of that of the pristine NaNH2–NaBH4 (2/1), and implying much better hydrogen generation kinetics.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
Precise control of structural parameters through nanoscale engineering to continuously tailor optical and electronic properties of functional nanomaterials remains an outstanding challenge. Previous work focused largely on chemical or physical interactions that occur under ambient pressures. In this article, we introduce a new pressure-directed assembly and fabrication method that uses a mechanical compressive force applied to nanoparticles (NPs) to induce structural phase transitions and consolidate new nanomaterials with precisely controlled structures and tunable properties. By manipulating NP coupling through external pressure instead of through chemistry, a reversible change in assembly structure and properties can be demonstrated. In addition, over a certain threshold, the external pressure forces these NPs into contact, allowing the formation and consolidation of one- to three-dimensional nanostructures. Through stress-induced NP assembly, unusual materials engineering and synthesis, in which morphology and architecture can be readily tuned to produce desired optical and electrical properties, appear feasible.
Nanoparticles (NPs) of Indium Antimonide (InSb) were synthesized using a vapor phase synthesis technique known as Inert Gas Condensation. NPs were directly deposited, at room temperature and under high vacuum, on glass cover slides, TEM grid, 1 inch-square (111) p-type Silicon wafer and Sodium Chloride substrates. XRD study revealed the crystalline behavior of these NPs exhibiting a cubic symmetry with preferred growth direction of (111). The average grain size of the NPs obtained using XRD results and the Debye-Scherrer formula was 25.62 nm. TEM studies showed a bimodal distribution of NPs with average NPs size of 13.70 and 33.20 nm. These values are consistent with the value obtained using XRD. 1:1 composition ratio of In:Sb was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy studies. The band gap of the NPs obtained using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was 0.413 eV at 300 K, which indicates quantum confinement in the band structure of these NPs.
Important to the development of dye-sensitized solar cells is the longevity and photo-conversion efficiency of the dye. To improve cost effectiveness, dyes of superior thermal and chemical stability are desirable to extend device performance. In this study, we examine a series of peripherally fluorinated Zinc-Phthalocyanines (FxZnPc). Introduction of chemically inert fluorine and isopropyl fluoroalkyl groups on the periphery of the Pc improve the dye stability and allow for tunable photo-physical properties. Additionally, introduction of the bulky isopropyl fluoroalkyl groups help mitigate molecular aggregation in thin films which is known to be detrimental to maintaining the desired photo-physical properties of the surface coating. Using molecular dynamics and first principles modeling, various substituent effects on surface adhesion and aggregation over TiO2 surfaces are characterized for both symmetric and asymmetric substitution.
Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas that is a bi-product of industrial approaches to energy production. Forests and nonagricultural lands act as a natural sink for CO2 removal from the atmosphere; however, the amount of emitted CO2 is significantly larger than the capacity of these natural sinks. This is particularly problematic as two cornerstones of our modern world, electricity generation and transportation, hold the largest share in greenhouse gas (such as CO2) emission. This leads to malignant impacts on the natural environment and human life, such as global warming. The obvious approach to reduce the amount of generated CO2 is to limit the use of fossil fuels. However, coal-fired power plants remain the largest source of electricity generation in 2014 and an equally potent and financially reasonable source is yet to be fully developed. Hence, new systems and strategies are crucial for the remediation of CO2. In this work, we present novel TiO2 nanoparticles, synthesized via a facile solution-phase method, which show a significant visible light absorption. The synthesized nanoparticles can be applied towards photoreduction of CO2 for hydrocarbon solar fuels production. A thorough photoemission spectroscopy analysis outlined the energy structure of the materials which uncovered a sub-bandgap absorption in the visible range due to the presence of intragap states. The origins of intragap states were investigated in greater detail using various characterization techniques. An in-depth chemical composition study of the developed material using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the synthesized material is considerably un-doped. Further structural analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that distances between visible lattice fringes are matched with ordered crystalline phases of TiO2. The core emission study using XPS revealed that the oxygen vacancy defects in the structure--i.e. likely due the synthesis--are responsible for intragap states formation. Charge dynamics were investigated using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR spectra were dominated by signals from oxygen-centered surface hole trapping sites with principle g values [2.003, 2.010, 2.023]--i.e. Ti4+ ˗ O2- on anatase. A faint signal was also observed as a function of visible light illumination at 5 K with principle g value of 1.975 that is suggestive of Ti3+ in rutile, a typical product of UV light exposure. In general, this study demonstrates the potential of a relatively inexpensive material for photoreduction of CO2 and generation of solar fuels.
We report the synthesis of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) nanostructures and its incorporation into an inorganic-organic hybrid device to enhance the photoresponse under AM 1.5 G solar illumination. The nanostructures were structurally and optically characterized. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the CTS nanocrystals were found to be tetragonal. Flower like structures of CTS were obtained as seen from Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A band gap of 1.4 eV was obtained from absorption studies. Two devices have been studied, P3HT: PCBM = 1: 1 and CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1. The photocurrent increased from a value of 2.33 mA at dark to 2.5 mA for the P3HT-PCBM blend to 3.36 mA for CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1 device. The responsivity, sensitivity, external quantum efficiency and specific detectivity increased from 18.81 mA/W, 1.07, 4.25% and 6.88 × 108 Jones respectively for P3HT:PCBM sample to 189.97 mA/W, 1.44, 42.9% and 6.95 × 109 Jones for CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1 sample at 1V bias and 1 Sun illumination intensity. The time dependent photoresponse was stable over different ON-OFF cycles. From the fit to the rise and decay curves, the rise and decay time constants were obtained.
Due to the potential applications to high-efficiency and light-weight solar cells, the growth of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) nanoparticles is a recent research focus. We have developed a relatively simple solvothermal route to grow high quality CIGS nanoparticles in an autoclave under different temperatures (170 – 280°C). The effect of reaction temperature on the shape of CIGS nanoparticles has been investigated. At lower temperatures, the CIGS particles show plate-like shape. Whereas at higher temperatures, most of them exhibit rod-like feature. The nanoparticle products have been also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.
Nanomedicine is fostering significant advances in the development of platforms for early detection and treatment of diseases. Nanoparticles (NPs) like quantum dots (QDs) exhibit size-dependent optical properties for light-driven technologies, which might become important in bio-imaging, sensing and photo-dynamic therapy (PDT) applications. The present research addresses the synthesis of water-stable Cd-based QDs via a Microwave-Assisted synthesis approach using cadmium sulfate salt, and thioglycolic acid as Cd- and S-precursors, respectively. Selenide ions were available by reductive leaching of metallic Selenium in Sodium bisulfite solution. The size control and the tunability of the optical properties were achieved by a suitable control of the reaction temperature (in the 140°C- 190°C range) and reaction time (10 minutes-40 minutes). X-ray diffraction analyses suggested the development of a CdSe,S face cubic centered structure; the broadening of the diffraction peaks indicated the presence of very small nanocrystals in the samples. The average crystallite size was estimated at 5.50 nm ± 1.17nm and 3.72 nm ± 0.04 nm, for nanoparticles synthesized at 180°C after 40 minutes or 10 minutes of reaction, respectively. HRTEM images confirmed the crystalline nature and the small size of the synthesized nanocrystals. In turn, the exciton was red-shifted from 461nm to 549 nm when the reaction temperature was prolonged from 140°C to 190 °C, suggesting the crystal growth. The corresponding band gap values were approximately 2.2 eV, confirming the quantum confinement effect (bulk value 1.74eV). This red shift was also evidenced in PL measurements where the main emission peak was shifted from 507 nm to 564 nm when the samples were excited at 420 nm. A narrow size-tunable emission also was supported by the full width at half maximum (∼ 45 nm) for the synthesized nanocrystals. The reactive oxygen species generation capability of as-synthesized QDs was also investigated. The correlation between the particle size and the generation of (ROS) by the degradation of methylene blue was evident with a reduction of MB concentration from 10μM to 7.5μM and 6.7μM after 15 minutes of UV irradiation for reaction time of 10 min. and 40 min. respectively. No additional degradation was noticed after 60 minutes of irradiation.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative to traditional cancer treatments. This approach involves the use of photosensitizer (PS) agents and their interaction with light. As a consequence, cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated that, in turn will destroy tumors. On the other hand, ZnO is a biocompatible, nontoxic, and biodegradable material with the capability to generate ROS, specifically singlet oxygen (SO), which makes this material a promising candidate for 2-photon PDT. Doping ZnO with Li species is expected to induce defects in the host oxide structure that favors the formation of trap states that should affect the electronic transitions related to the generation of SO. The present work reports the effect of the level of Li-doping on the ZnO structure and its capability to generate SO. Li-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized under size-controlled conditions using a modified version of the polyol method. XRD measurements confirmed the development of well-crystallized ZnO Wurtzite; the average crystallite sizes ranged between 13.3nm and 14.2 nm, with an increase in Li content. The corresponding band gap energy values, estimated from UV-vis measurements, decreased from 3.33 to 3.25 eV. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of Li-ZnO revealed the presence of emission peaks centered on 363nm, 390nm, and 556 nm; these emission peaks correspond to the exciton emission, transition of shallow donor levels near of the conduction band to valence band such as interstitial Zn, and oxygen vacancies, respectively. The observed increase of the emission intensity of the 390 nm emission peak, relative to the intensity of the main emission peak at 363nm, was attributed to the promote of trap states due to interstitial Zn or Li-incorporation into the host oxide lattice. SO measurements evidenced the enhancing effect of the Li concentration on the capability of the doped ZnO to generate this species. This Li-dependence of SO generation can be attributed to the enhancement of the concentration of trap states in the host ZnO, as suggested by PL measurements. Accordingly, Li-ZnO would become cytotoxic to cancer cells via photo-induced ROS generation enabling this nanomaterial to be considered as a potential direct PS agent for the 2-photon PDT route.
A series of fluorine appended highly conjugated fullerenes were prepared containing fluoro-α-cyanostilbene and aryl ester units. These modified PCBM dyads are fully characterized by NMR, Mass spectrometry, UV-vis, and cyclic voltammetry (Figures 1-4). It was found that the presence of fluoro-α-cyanostilbenes and esters affects the cyclic voltammetry and absorption in the UV-Vis region. The PCBA modified fullerenes significantly influences the HOMO-LUMO energy and wide absorption compared to PCBM.
The deformation of a compound capsule (an elastic capsule with a smaller capsule inside) in simple shear flow is studied by using three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a front tracking method. The inner and outer capsules are concentric and initially spherical. Skalak et al.’s constitutive law is employed for the mechanics of both the inner and outer membranes. Our results concerning the deformation of homogeneous capsules (i.e. capsules without the inner capsules) are quantitatively in agreement with the predictions of previous numerical simulations and perturbation theories. Compared to homogeneous capsules, compound capsules exhibit smaller deformation. The deformations of both the inner and outer capsules are significantly affected by the capillary numbers of the inner and outer membranes and the volume ratio of the inner to the outer capsule. When the inner capsule is small, it presents smaller deformation than the outer capsule. However, when the inner capsule is sufficiently large, it can present larger deformation than the outer capsule, even if the inner membrane has much lower capillary number than the outer membrane. The underlying mechanisms are discussed: (i) the inner capsule is deformed by rotational flow with lower rate of strain rather than by simple shear flow that deforms the outer capsule, and thus the inner capsule exhibits smaller deformation; and (ii) when the inner and outer membranes are sufficiently close (i.e. the inner capsule is sufficiently large), the hydrodynamic interaction between the two membranes becomes significant, which is found to inhibit the deformation of the outer capsule but to promote the deformation of the inner capsule.