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TO describe what is, to our knowledge, the first nosocomial outbreak of infection with pan–drug-resistant (including colistin-resistant) Acinetobacter baumannii, to determine the risk factors associated with these types of infections, and to determine their clinical impact.
Nested case-control cohort study and a clinical-microbiological study.
A 1,521-bed tertiary care university hospital in Seville, Spain.
Case patients were inpatients who had a pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii isolate recovered from a clinical or surveillance sample obtained at least 48 hours after admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) during the time of the epidemic outbreak. Control patients were patients who were admitted to any of the “boxes” (ie, rooms that partition off a distinct area for a patient's bed and the equipment needed to care for the patient) of an ICU for at least 48 hours during the time of the epidemic outbreak.
All the clinical isolates had similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns (ie, they were resistant to all the antibiotics tested, including Colistin), and, on the basis of repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction, it was determined that all of them were of the same clone. The previous use of quinolones and glycopeptides and an ICU stay were associated with the acquisition of infection or colonization with pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii. To control this outbreak, we implemented the following multicomponent intervention program: the performance of environmental decontamination of the ICUs involved, an environmental survey, a revision of cleaning protocols, active surveillance for colonization with pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii, educational programs for the staff, and the display of posters that illustrate contact isolation measures and antimicrobial use recommendations.
We were not able to identify the common source for these cases of infection, but the adopted measures have proven to be effective at controlling the outbreak.
To investigate the clinical features and the epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in Spanish hospitals.
Prospective multicenter cohort study.
Twenty-seven general hospitals and one paraplegic center in Spain.
All cases of A. baumannii colonization or infection detected by clinical samples during November 2000 were included. Isolates were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods. The molecular relatedness of the isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Twenty-five (89%) of the hospitals had 221 cases (pooled rate in general hospitals, 0.39 case per 1,000 patient-days; range, 0 to 1.17). The rate was highest in intensive care units (ICUs). Only 3 cases were pediatric. The mean age of the patients in the general hospitals was 63 years; 69% had a chronic underlying disease and 80% had previously received antimicrobial treatment. Fifty-three percent of the patients had an infection (respiratory tract, 51%; surgical site, 16%; and urinary tract, 11%). Crude mortality was higher in infected than in colonized patients (27% vs 10%; relative risk, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.0; P = .003). Molecular analysis disclosed 79 different clones. In most hospitals, a predominant epidemic clone coexisted with other sporadic clones. Imipenem resistance was present in 39% of the hospitals.
A. baumannii was present in most participating Spanish hospitals (particularly in ICUs) with different rates among them. The organisms mainly affected predisposed patients; half of them were only colonized. Epidemic and sporadic clones coexisted in many centers.
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