To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A numerical analysis of flow around a circular cylinder oscillating in-line with a steady flow is carried out over a range of driving frequencies
at relatively low amplitudes
and a constant Reynolds number of 175 (based on the free-stream velocity). The vortex shedding is investigated, especially when the shedding frequency
synchronises with the driving frequency. A series of modes of synchronisation are presented, which are referred to as the
are natural numbers. When a
is detuned to
, representing the shedding of
pairs of vortices over
cycles of cylinder oscillation. The
modes are further characterised by the periodicity of the transverse force over every
cycles of oscillation and a spatial–temporal symmetry possessed by the global wake. The synchronisation modes
with relatively small natural numbers are less sensitive to the change of external control parameters than those with large natural numbers, while the latter is featured with a narrow space of occurrence. Although the mode of synchronisation can be almost any rational ratio (as shown for
smaller than 10), the probability of occurrence of synchronisation modes with
being an even number is much higher than
being an odd number, which is believed to be influenced by the natural even distribution of vortices in the wake of a stationary cylinder.
In this work, the ultraﬁne nanoporous Ag ribbons were achieved through addition of 2 at.%–6 at.% Ce into the melt-spun Cu-Ag alloys and applying different electrochemical dealloying potentials. The dendritic morphology of the ligaments in the dealloyed Cu80Ag20 alloy varied to be equiaxial due to the addition of Ce, and the pore size reduced from 200 nm to less than 60 nm. The nanoporous Ag with an average pore size of ∼15 nm was obtained from the Cu74Ag20Ce6 alloy. The pore and ligament sizes of the nanoporous Ag prepared from the Cu76Ag20Ce4 alloy exhibited an increasing tendency with the increase of applied potentials, while the dealloyed Cu78Ag20Ce2 had an opposite variation. Moreover, the addition of Ce into the Cu-Ag alloys also promoted the dealloying. Nanoporous Ag exhibited the stronger enhancement of the surface enhanced Raman scattering effects with the increase of Ce contents in the precursory alloys.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.