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The aims of this systematic review were to examine the effects of the overall and the different types of the interventions on the do-not-resuscitate (DNR) designation and the time between DNR and death among cancer patients.
Data were searched from the databases of PubMed, CINAHL, EMbase, Medline, and Cochrane Library through 2 November 2017. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were (1) randomized control trails, quasi-experimental study, and retrospective observational studies and (2) used outcome indicators of DNR designation rates. The Effective Public Health Practice Project tool was used to assess the overall quality of the included studies.
The 14 studies with a total of 7,180 participants were included in this review. There were 78.6% (11 of 14) studies that indicated that the interventions could improve the DNR designation rates. Three types of DNR interventions were identified in this review: palliative care unit service, palliative consultation services, and patient-physician communication program. The significant increases of the time between DNR designation and death only occurred in a patient-physician communication program.
Significance of results:
The palliative care unit service provided a continuing care model to reduce unnecessary utilization of healthcare service. The palliative consultation service is a new care model to meet the needs of cancer patients in non-palliative care unit. The share decision-making communication program and physician's compassion attitudes facilitate to make DNR decision early. The individualized DNR program needs to be developed according to the needs of cancer patients.
Our aim was to examine the effect of supportive care interventions on depressive symptoms in patients with lung cancer.
We searched the databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, and the Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS) from their inception until September of 2015. We included randomized controlled trial studies that compared standard care with supportive care interventions. The standardized mean difference (SMD) (Cohen's d) was calculated to estimate the effect of interventions. Subgroup analysis was conducted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity.
A total of 1,472 patients with lung cancer were identified. Compared with standard care, the overall effects of all supportive care interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms (SMD = –0.74, CI95% = –1.07 to –0.41), and the effects could be maintained at weeks 4, 8, and 12 of follow-up. Three types of supportive care interventions were identified: psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation, psychoeducation alone, and an exercise program. Both psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation and exercise significantly improved depressive symptoms, while psychoeducation alone did not yield significant effects. The moderating effects indicated that greater improvements in depressive symptoms were found in lung cancer patients with a severe level of depressive symptoms at baseline.
Significance of results:
Personalized supportive care interventions can be developed based on the main causes of depressive symptoms. Psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation can target the causes of depressive symptoms, including both physical distress and psychological trauma due to lung cancer, while exercise programs can effectively improve depressive symptoms for lung cancer patients with impaired respiratory function.
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