To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In an effort to improve the reliability of Arctic sea-ice predictions, an ensemble-based Arctic Ice Ocean Prediction System (ArcIOPS) has been developed to meet operational demands. The system is based on a regional Arctic configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. A localized error subspace transform ensemble Kalman filter is used to assimilate the weekly merged CryoSat-2 and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity sea-ice thickness data together with the daily Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sea-ice concentration data. The weather forecasts from the Global Forecast System of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction drive the sea ice–ocean coupled model. The ensemble mean sea-ice forecasts were used to facilitate the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in summer 2017. The forecasted sea-ice concentration is evaluated against AMSR2 and Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder sea-ice concentration data. The forecasted sea-ice thickness is compared to the in-situ observations and the Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. These comparisons show the promising potential of ArcIOPS for operational Arctic sea-ice forecasts. Nevertheless, the forecast bias in the Beaufort Sea calls for a delicate parameter calibration and a better design of the assimilation system.
For gas flows with moderate and low Knudsen numbers, pair-wise collisions in the Boltzmann equation can be approximated by the Langevin model corresponding to the Fokker-Planck equation. Using this simplified collision model, particle numerical schemes, e.g. the Fokker-Planck model (FPM) method, can simulate low Knudsen number gas flows more efficient than those based on the Boltzmann equation, such as the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. However, as analyzed in this paper, the transport properties of the FPM method deviate from the physical values as the time step increases, and this problem affects its computational accuracy and efficiency for the simulation of multi-scale flows. Herewe propose a particle Fokker-Planck algorithm with multiscale temporal discretization (MTD-FPM) to overcome the drawbacks of the original FPM method. In the MTD-FPM method, the molecular motion is tracked following the integration scheme of the Langevin model in analogy to the original FPM method. However, to ensure consistent transport coefficients for arbitrary temporal discretization, a time step dependent friction coefficient has been implemented. Several benchmark problems, including Couette, thermal Couette, Poiseuille, and Sod tube flows, are simulated to validate the proposed MTD-FPM method.
The etiology and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders has yet to be elucidated, so their differential diagnosis is a challenge. This is especially true in differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA).
A total of 11 eligible articles were identified by search of electronic databases including PubMed, Springer Link, Elsevier, and the Cochrane Library, up to June 2014. In meta-analyses, standardized mean differences (SMD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures of α-synuclein between the above conditions were calculated using random-effects models.
CSF α-synuclein concentrations were significantly higher in AD compared to DLB [SMD: 0.32, 95% CI: (0.02, 0.62), z = 2.07, P = 0.038]; PD [SMD: 0.87, 95% CI: (0.15, 1.58), z = 2.38, P = 0.017]; or MSA [SMD: 1.14, 95% CI: (0.15, 2.14), z = 2.25, P = 0.025]. However, no significant difference was found between patients with AD and neurological cognitively normal controls [SMD: 0.02, 95% CI: (−0.21, 0.24), z = 0.13, P = 0.894].
Results of these meta-analysis suggest that quantification of CSF α-synuclein could help distinguish AD from other neurodegenerative disorders such as DLB, PD, or MSA.
Considerable controversy exists regarding the associations of dietary patterns with the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. The PubMed database was searched for prospective cohort studies on the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality published until February 2014. Random-effects models were used to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on the highest v. the lowest category of dietary pattern scores. Stratified analyses were conducted based on sex, geographical region, follow-up duration, and adjustment/non-adjustment for energy intake. A total of thirteen prospective cohort studies involving 338 787 participants were included in the meta-analysis. There was evidence of inverse associations between the prudent/healthy dietary pattern and the risk of all-cause (SRRE = 0·76, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·86) and CVD (SRRE = 0·81, 95 % CI 0·75, 0·87) mortality and an absence of association between this dietary pattern and stroke mortality (SRRE = 0·89, 95 % CI 0·77, 1·02). However, no significant associations were observed between the Western/unhealthy dietary pattern and the risk of all-cause (SRRE = 1·07, 95 % CI 0·96, 1·20), CVD (SRRE = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·08) and stroke (SRRE = 0·94, 95 % CI 0·81, 1·10) mortality. In conclusion, the findings provide evidence that greater adherence to a prudent/healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality and not significantly associated with stroke mortality and that the Western/unhealthy dietary pattern is not associated with all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
First principle calculations are employed scheme to investigate the electronic structures and mechanical properties of AlCu3 with divacancy defects using the pseudopotential plane wave method. The defect crystal is constructed by removing the nearest Al or Cu atoms to form the double point vacancies. Calculated lattice constants agree well with the experimental data. Moreover, structural stabilities of crystals containing divacancy are reduced. Results reveal that the crystal with double Cu vacancy defects is more stable than that of Al. Calculations of defect formation energies indicate that the divacancy of Cu is easier to exist in AlCu3. Divacancy defects play an important role to improve the mechanical properties of AlCu3 and corresponding ductility, stiffness and plasticity are increased. Furthermore, chemical bonds become weaker since the divacancy are introduced. Hybridizations between orbits of crystals are analyzed to account for the interactions in perfect and defect structures. Accordingly, implications of these findings on the mechanism of divacancy are discussed.
The relaxation behavior of neat PET and PET/Ti3N4 nanocomposites was investigated by means of internal friction. The temperature dependence of internal friction exhibit two relaxation peaks i.e. α and β peaks, and both heights of the peaks first increase and then decrease with increasing concentration of Ti3N4 nanoparticles. However, the peak temperature and activation energy for α and β peaks show different change trends with increasing concentration of Ti3N4 nanoparticles, which associated with the changes of nucleation and crystallization of the PET due to the addition of nanoparticles. Further increasing the concentration of Ti3N4 nanoparticles, a third peak, α′ located at the temperature between α and β peaks appears in the PET/Ti3N4 nanocomposites, which may be a physical aging peak.
We explored the early expression of NF-κB, MCP-1 and -MMP 9 in a rabbit carotid aneurysm model, and investigated the possible mechanism of aneurysm.
twenty four adult new Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups. normal control (group a); rabbits received elastase induction for 1, 2 3 weeks (group b, C and d respectively); hematoxylin-eosin stains were performed for observation. the mrna and protein expression of NF-κB, MCP-1 and MMP-9 were analyzed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods.
the expression of NF-κB and MCp-1 reached their peaks after induction for one week, then decreased. their expression in week 1 and week 2 had no statistical difference. the expression of MMP-9 increased after induction. We observed the highest expression at week 3. as the induction time increased, the number of smooth muscles reduced. endothelial cells were damaged; the aneurysm wall elastic layer was damaged.
activation of NF-κB may be one of the initiating factors contributing to the occurrence and development of cerebral aneurysm. MCP-1 induced macrophage adhesion and infiltration in the artery wall of cerebral aneurysms, and contributed to the occurrence and development of brain aneurysm. damage to elastic fibers is one of the key factors for aneurysm formation. increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and the secretion of MMP-9 are the main reasons for elastic fiber damage.
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) single crystals are the only nonlinear crystals currently used for electro-optic switches and frequency converters in inertial confinement fusion research, due to their large dimension and exclusive physical properties. Based on the traditional solution-growth process, large bulk KDP crystals, usually with sizes up to 600
so as to make a frequency doubler for the facility requirement loading highly flux of power laser, can be grown in standard Holden-type crystallizers, without spontaneous nucleation and visible defects, one to two orders of magnitude faster than by conventional methods. Pure water and KDP raw material with a few ion impurities such as Fe, Cr, and Al (less than 0.1 ppm) were used. The rapid-growth method includes extreme conditions such as temperature range from 60 to 35
C, overcooling up to 5
C, growth rates exceeding 10 mm/day, and crystal size up to 600 mm. The optical parameters of KDP crystals were determined. The optical properties of crystals determined indicate that they are of favorable quality for application in the facility.
A traditional assumption is that schistosome cercariae lose their tails at the onset of penetration. It has, however, recently been demonstrated that, for Schistosoma mansoni, cercarial tails were not invariably being shed as penetration took place and a high proportion of tails entered human skin under experimental conditions. This phenomenon was termed delayed tail loss (DTL). In this paper, we report that DTL also happens with S. japonicum cercariae during penetration of mouse skin. It occurred at all cercarial densities tested, from as few as 10 cercariae/2·25 cm2 of mouse skin up to 200 cercariae. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that there was a density-dependent increase in DTL as cercarial densities increased. No such density-dependent enhancement was shown for percentage attachment over the same cercarial density range.
We have demonstrated conformal deposition of amorphous GeSbTe films in high aspect ratio structures by MOCVD. SEM analysis showed the as-deposited GeSbTe films had smooth morphologies and were well controlled for void free amorphous conformal deposition. GeSbTe films adhere well to SiO2, TiN, and TiAlN. The morphology and adhesion are stable in 420°C post process. By annealing at 365°C, amorphous GeSbTe films converted into crystalline GeSbTe with polycrystalline grain sizes of 5nm. Film resistivity in the crystalline phase ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 Ω-cm, suitable for device applications. Phase change devices fabricated with confined via structures filled with MOCVD GeSbTe showed cycle endurances up to 1×1010 with a dynamic set/rest resistance of two orders of magnitude.
The successful synthesis of ZnS hollow microspheres by a solvothermal route is reported. The synthesis was achieved by a proper selection of a sulfur source, i.e., Na2S2O3⋅5H2O or (NH2)2CS, to react with Zn(CH3COO)2⋅2H2O in mixed solvents of ethylene glycol and deionized water. The ZnS products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD identified the ZnS products to have either zinc blende or wurtzite structure. SEM images revealed hollow ZnS microspheres with 1 to 2 μm diameters and 100 to 200 nm shell thicknesses. TEM images confirmed that the hollow ZnS microspheres were assembled by ZnS crystalline nanocrystallites. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the zinc blende hollow microspheres showed a strong green emission at 514 nm and weak emission at 379 nm.
CdTe thin films were grown on indium tin oxide glass substrates by a closed-space sublimation method using a resistor heater. Crystalline structure, morphology, and band gaps of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical absorption, respectively. The XRD analysis showed that the textures of the films were found to depend on the rate of increase in the heating current. The CdTe thin film had an (111) texture when the heating current rate was 2.0 A/min. The SEM analysis revealed that the film is composed of polyhedral grains of microns size. However, the (111) texture of the CdTe thin film observed by XRD decreased with the appearance of (220), (311), (400), (331), (422), and (511) peaks of the fcc CdTe phase when the heating current rate increased to 4.5 A/min. The (111) texture disappeared when the heating current was increased immediately from 0 A to the target current of 70 A. SEM results revealed that the grains in the film are round and the grain size is smaller than 1 μm. Optical absorption analysis showed that there is no distinctive difference in the band gaps of the films.
Understanding the habitat needs of White Eared-pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon and Blood Pheasant Ithaginis cruentus is important for their conservation. We carried out field surveys of the two pheasants around Zhujie Monastery, Daocheng County, Sichuan Province, China, using line transects. In total, 172 200 × 200 m grid squares were obtained, including 56 active and 116 inactive ones for White Eared-pheasant and 45 active and 127 inactive ones for Blood Pheasant. We analysed the occurrence of both species by logistic multiple regression. The most important variables in model 1 for White Eared-pheasant were distance to nearest permanent water, shrub cover, tree cover, tree height and herb cover. In model 2 for Blood Pheasant, distance to nearest permanent water, shrub cover, herb cover and herb height were most important. The occurrence of both pheasants was negatively related to distance to nearest permanent water and herb cover, and positively related to shrub cover. The occurrence of White Eared-pheasant was positively related to tree cover and tree height, and that of Blood Pheasant to herb height. Water, food and predation risk were the main ecological factors affecting the species' distribution. Based on the two predictive models, conservation management was proposed, to include management of selectively-logged areas and substituting other energy sources, such as electricity, for firewood.
To differentiate pigs infected with Pseudorabies virus (PrV) from pigs vaccinated with gE-PrV, a glycoprotein E enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gE-ELISA) based on recombinant glycoprotein E (gE) (which was expressed by Escherichia coli, purified, denatured and renatured) was developed. By testing 115 serum samples, the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the developed gE-ELISA were evaluated to be 94.5% and 96.7%, respectively. Five serum samples were tested with plates from five lots, and the results had a coefficient of variation of less than 10%, showing good reproducibility of gE-ELISA. This gE-ELISA was compared with a commercial blocking ELISA by testing 356 serum samples. The agreement rate of the two assays was 92.13% (328/356). These results suggested that the gE-ELISA developed in our laboratory could be used in differentiating PrV-infected and gE-PrV-vaccinated pigs.
Silicon nitride ceramic composites were bonded using mixed Y2O3, La2O3, Al2O3, and SiO2 powers. The effect of bonding conditions on the joint strength was studied. The joint strength under different bonding conditions was measured by four-point bending tests. The interfacial microstructures were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results of EPMA and XRD analyses showed that the liquid/glass solders reacted with silicon nitride at the interface, forming a Si3N4//Si2N2O/Y–La–Si–Al–O–N glass/Y–La–Si–Al–O glass gradient interface. From the results of the four-point bending tests, it is known that with an increase in bonding temperature and hold time, the joint strength first increased, reached a peak, and then decreased. LaYO3 precipitated from the joint glass can improve strength of the joint at both room and high temperatures.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.