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Highly dense zirconia dental ceramic coatings were fabricated by aqueous electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and subsequently sintered between 1250 and 1450 °C. Microstructural examination revealed that aqueous EPDZrO2 coatings possessed a tetragonal phase structure and the grain size increased with increasing sintering temperature. Nanoindentation study proved that the aqueous EPDZrO2 coating also had excellent mechanical properties. The effect of different applied loads on hardness and elastic modulus of the 1350 °C-sintered sample at room temperature was investigated by the method of progressive multicycle measurement nanoindentation. The simulative experiment proved that hardness of aqueous EPDZrO2 exhibited reverse indentation size effect (ISE) behavior and then displayed the normal ISE response. The analysis indicates that the reverse ISE is attributed to the relaxation of surface stresses resulting from indentation cracks at small loads and normal ISE is caused by geometrically necessary dislocations. The tetragonal–monoclinic stress-induced phase transformation during nanoindentation is the primary cause of dental zirconia failures.
AZ91 magnesium plates with a thickness of 6 mm were subjected to one- and two-pass friction stir processing (FSP). Microstructures and mechanical properties of the experimental materials were investigated. The results show that FSP can significantly refine the microstructures of magnesium alloys, and two-pass FSP can prepare slightly finer grains in comparison with one-pass FSP. Some coarse β-Mg17Al12 phases existed in the first pass FSP break and dissolve into the matrix under the action of the second pass FSP. Microhardness distribution of the two-pass FSP AZ91 alloy exhibits no too much difference with that of the one-pass FSP AZ91 alloy. Due to further finer microstructures, the tensile properties of the two-pass FSP alloy are slightly higher than those of the one-pass FSP alloy. Both FSP AZ91 alloys show typical ductile fracture characteristics, while the dimples on the two-pass FSP specimen are much deeper and increase in quantity.
Catalysts play essential roles in the chemical vapor deposition of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this article, we summarize studies on catalysts for the structure-controlled growth and mass production of SWCNTs, discussing the main progress and the remaining challenges.
Previous studies have investigated the association between dietary inflammatory potential and the development of cancer. For breast cancer the results have been equivocal. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher Dietary Inflammatory IndexTM (DII) scores were associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 867 cases and 824 controls were recruited into the present case–control study from September 2011 to February 2016. DII scores were computed based on baseline dietary intake assessed by a validated 81-item FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI were assessed by multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for various potential confounders. DII scores in this study ranged from −5·87 (most anti-inflammatory score) to +5·71 (most proinflammatory score). A higher DII score was associated with a higher breast cancer risk (adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 2·28; 95 % CI 1·71, 3·03; adjusted ORcontinuous 1·40; 95 %CI 1·25, 1·39). In stratified analyses, positive associations also were observed except for underweight women or women with either oestrogen receptor+ or progesterone receptor+ status (but not both). Results from this study indicated that higher DII scores, corresponding to more proinflammatory diets, were positively associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
Nitrogen is an essential element for biological activity, and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geological samples record information about both marine biological processes and environmental evolution. However, only a few studies of N isotopes in the early Cambrian have been published. In this study, we analysed nitrogen isotopic compositions, as well as trace elements and sulphur isotopic compositions of cherts, black shales, carbonaceous shales and argillaceous carbonates from the Daotuo drill core in Songtao County, NE Guizhou Province, China, to reconstruct the marine redox environment of both deep and surface seawater in the study area of the Yangtze shelf margin in the early Cambrian. The Mo–U covariation pattern of the studied samples indicates that the Yangtze shelf margin area was weakly restricted and connected to the open ocean through shallow water flows. Mo and U concentrations, δ15Nbulk and δ34Spy values of the studied samples from the Yangtze shelf margin area suggest ferruginous but not sulphidic seawater and low marine sulphate concentration (relatively deep chemocline) in the Cambrian Fortunian and early Stage 2; sulphidic conditions (shallow chemocline and anoxic photic zone) in the upper Cambrian Stage 2 and lower Stage 3; and the depression of sulphidic seawater in the middle and upper Cambrian Stage 3. Furthermore, the decreasing δ15N values indicate shrinking of the marine nitrate reservoir during the middle and upper Stage 3, which reflects a falling oxygenation level in this period. The environmental evolution was probably controlled by the changing biological activity through its feedback on the local marine environment.
In this letter, a passive high-selectivity dual-band filter with two controllable transmission zero (TZ) pairs is proposed, while synthesis method and control mechanism of the two TZ pairs are investigated. Specifically, by employing the magnetic/electric mixed coupling (MEMC), source–load coupling (S–L coupling) and stepped-impedance resonators, a dual-band bandpass filter with two pairs of controllable TZs is constructed. Two controllable TZ pairs can be independently adjusted by re-modifying the associated coupling structures. To validate the synthesizability and controllability of the TZ pairs, mathematical synthesis, and EM simulations are carried out. Two demonstrative filters with identical passband performance and different central TZ distributions for GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz) are designed and measured. The analysis and experimental results show that the synthesis-controllable TZ pair (fz2, fz3) introduced by MEMC can be synthesized and controlled using inline mixed coupling synthesis, and the optimization-controllable TZ pair (fz1, fz4) because of S–L coupling is controlled by S–L coupling strength optimization procedure.
TiO2 nanotubes have been demonstrated with promising future in photoelectrocatalytic (PEC)_ applications and deposition of Pt nanoparticles on TiO2 has been widely used to enhance their PEC activities. However, those Pt nanoparticles are normally randomly deposited on the surface of TiO2 nanotubes. Selective deposition of Pt nanoparticles is important to achieve better charge separation. In this study, we reported an electrochemical activation step to prepare TiO2 nanotubes deposited with Pt nanoparticles on their open ends. The “activation step” played a key role in achieving a clean surface of the TiO2 nanotubes, thus ensuring the uniform growth of Pt nanoparticles and efficient photogenerated electrons transportation. The Pt-A-TiO2 films have photocatalytic activities in hydrogen generation and methyl orange degradation with a high hydrogen generation rate of 0.74 mL/h/cm2, three times that of the pure TiO2 nanotubes (0.24 mL/h/cm2). Thus, this study demonstrated an effective method for improving the performance of Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst.
To track the course of development in children's fine-grained perception of Mandarin tones, the present study explored how categorical perception (CP) of Mandarin tones emerges along age among 70 four- to seven-year-old children and 16 adults. Prominent discrimination peaks were found for both the child and the adult groups, and they were well aligned with the corresponding identification crossovers. Moreover, six-year-olds showed a much narrower width (i.e. a sharper slope) compared to younger children, and have already acquired adult-like identification competence of Mandarin high-level and mid-rising tones. Although the ability to discriminate within-category tone pairs did not change, the between-category discrimination accuracies were positively correlated with chronological ages among child participants. We assume that the perceptual refinement of Mandarin tones in young children may be driven by an accumulation of perceptual development from the tonal information of the ambient sound input.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case–control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (Pinteraction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (Pinteraction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.
Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95 % CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk.
We propose a motor-driven capsule robot based on a sliding clamper (MCRSC), a device to explore the partially collapsed and winding intestinal tract. The MCRSC is powered by wireless power transmission based on near-field inductive coupling. It comprises a novel locomotion unit, a camera, and a three-dimensional receiving coil, all installed at both ends of the locomotion unit. The novel locomotion unit comprises a linear motion mechanism and a sliding clamper. The former adopts a pair of lead-screw and nut to obtain linear motion, whereas the latter anchors the MCRSC to a specific point of the intestinal tract by expanding its arc-shaped legs. The MCRSC is capable of two-way locomotion, which is activated by alternately executing linear motion and anchoring action. Ex vivo experiments have shown that the MCRSC is able to inspect the colon within a time frame of standard colonoscopy.
Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets.
We explored the early expression of NF-κB, MCP-1 and -MMP 9 in a rabbit carotid aneurysm model, and investigated the possible mechanism of aneurysm.
twenty four adult new Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups. normal control (group a); rabbits received elastase induction for 1, 2 3 weeks (group b, C and d respectively); hematoxylin-eosin stains were performed for observation. the mrna and protein expression of NF-κB, MCP-1 and MMP-9 were analyzed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods.
the expression of NF-κB and MCp-1 reached their peaks after induction for one week, then decreased. their expression in week 1 and week 2 had no statistical difference. the expression of MMP-9 increased after induction. We observed the highest expression at week 3. as the induction time increased, the number of smooth muscles reduced. endothelial cells were damaged; the aneurysm wall elastic layer was damaged.
activation of NF-κB may be one of the initiating factors contributing to the occurrence and development of cerebral aneurysm. MCP-1 induced macrophage adhesion and infiltration in the artery wall of cerebral aneurysms, and contributed to the occurrence and development of brain aneurysm. damage to elastic fibers is one of the key factors for aneurysm formation. increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and the secretion of MMP-9 are the main reasons for elastic fiber damage.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan (CS)-Zn on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function in weanling pigs. A total of 150 weanling barrows with a body weight of 7·2 kg were randomly allocated into five groups. A basal diet without Zn supplementation was used as the control and other four groups were fed the control diet supplemented with 50 or 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn, 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 and 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO, respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 28 d. The results showed that serum diamine oxidase activities, d-lactate levels and endotoxin contents were lower in pigs fed dietary 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control or 100 mg Zn/kg as ZnSO4 diet. The ratios of the villus height:crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were higher in pigs that received 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or a high level of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control diet. Moreover, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL)-stained ileal epithelial cells were found in the control group, and apoptotic cells did not appear prominently in pigs that received the 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO diet. Secretory IgA concentration in ileal mucus was increased in the dietary group that received 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO. These results indicated that dietary 100 mg CS-Zn/kg had similar biological effects to dietary 3000 mg ZnO/kg on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function.
The hot ductility of Ti-bearing steel was studied by theoretical calculation and a
thermal simulation experiment. Meanwhile, microsegregation and precipitates were analyzed.
The results showed that the S, P and O elements were enriched at the grain boundaries,
while the hot ductility was deteriorated by inclusions of (Fe, Mn, Si, Al)(S,O) in the
interdendritic region. At a temperature of 1300 °C, large TiN particles have little effect
on the hot ductility. In the temperature range from 1000 °C to 900 °C, the Reduction of
Area (R.A) declined rapidly from 81.77%
to 31.77%, with the size of particles decreasing from 5 to 20 nm and quantity increasing
from 1.2 inds/μm2 to 354 inds/μm2,
respectively. In the temperature range from 900 °C to 850 °C,
R.A decreased from 31.77% to 30.12%
with the ferric films gradually thickening. The critical stress, 63.58 MPa, was equal to
tensile strength at 912 °C. Intergranular fracture occurred easily with higher critical
stress below 912 °C.
A series of layered n-ABO3-doped Aurivillius structures Bi4Ti3O12 (BTO) thin films are synthesized on (001) SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition, where n represents the number of ABO3 perovskite. X-ray diffraction substantiates that these films have expected layered Aurivillius structures. Furthermore, the microstructure of these samples is “systematically” characterized by transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the structure of n-STO-doped BTO becomes unstable when n is equal to 3, as revealed by the occurrence of intergrowth. Similar phenomenon is observed in n-LaFeO3-doped BTO; the layered Aurivillius structure is totally collapsed in the case of n as high as 2.5. In contrast, 3-BiFeO3-doped BTO still keeps perfect Aurivillius structure. The above-observed structural stabilities of these materials are explained by the theoretical formation enthalpy calculated by the density functional theory. This work provides the necessary information to explore the multifunctionality based on Aurivillius n-ABO3–BTO oxides.