To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum is known for abrupt events during the global cooling trend of the past 20 Ma. Its identification in the Tibetan Plateau can help explain the cause of the critical Middle Miocene climate transition in Central Asia. In this study, fine-grained mixed sediments widely distributed in the Miocene Qaidam Lake in the northern Tibetan Plateau were used as a sensitive indicator for palaeoclimate. Their geochemical characteristics were investigated, together with an analysis of 2600 m long successive gamma-ray logging data from the whole JS2 drillcore, to understand the mid-Miocene climate transition in the Tibetan Plateau. By comparing the gamma-ray curve of the mixed sediments with global temperature, the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum event can be easily identified. Further, the detailed petrological features and geochemical data of lacustrine fine-grained mixed sediments from a 400 m drillcore show oxidizing, high-sedimentation rate and brackish-saline water conditions in a semi-arid climate during the Middle Miocene period, demonstrating a dryer climate in the Qaidam Basin than in the monsoon-sensitive regions in Central Asia. These fine-grained mixed sediments have recorded climate drying before 15.3 Ma that represents a climatic transition within the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum; increasing carbonate-rich mixed sediments, decreasing algal limestone layers and decreasing lacustrine organic matter are indicators of this transition. Regional tectonic events include the retreat of the Paratethys from Central Asia at ∼15 Ma and the synchronous tectonic reorganization of the Altyn-Tagh fault system and the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We find that global climate change is the primary factor affecting the overall characteristics and changes of the Neogene climate in the Qaidam Basin, including the occurrence of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum and the cooling and drying tendency, while the regional events are a secondary factor.
Depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment often coexisted in the elderly. This study investigates the effect of late-life depressive symptoms on risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
A total of 14,231 dementia- and MCI free participants aged 60+ from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe were followed-up for 10 years to detect incident MCI. MCI was defined as 1.5 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the standardized global cognition score. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a 12-item Europe-depression scale (EURO-D). Severity of depressive symptoms was grouped as: no/minimal (score 0–3), moderate (score 4–5), and severe (score 6–12). Significant depressive symptoms (SDSs) were defined as EURO-D score ≥ 4.
During an average of 8.2 (SD = 2.4)-year follow-up, 1,352 (9.50%) incident MCI cases were identified. SDSs were related to higher MCI risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.10–1.44) in total population, individuals aged 70+ (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14–1.61) and women (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.08–1.51) in Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for confounders. In addition, there was a dose–response association between the severity of depressive symptoms and MCI incidence in total population, people aged ≥70 years and women (p-trend <0.001).
Significant depressive symptoms were associated with higher incidence of MCI in a dose–response fashion, especially among people aged 70+ years and women. Treating depressive symptoms targeting older population and women may be effective in preventing MCI.
The relationship between SFA consumption and the risk of overweight/obesity remains unclear. Epidemiological evidence is lacking among Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the association between individual dietary SFA intake and the risk of overweight/obesity in Chinese adults. Data from 8465 adults with BMI < 24 kg/m2 at entry in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989–2011) were analysed. Three-day 24-h dietary records were used to collect dietary data. Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the risk of developing overweight or obesity. A total of 3171 incident cases of overweight/obesity were identified (1649 for women and 1522 for men) during a median of 11 years of follow-up. Compared with the lowest category, the intake of total SFA (TSFA) showed no significant association with the risk of overweight/obesity. However, an increased risk of overweight/obesity was observed with a higher intake of medium chain SFA (MCSFA) (Ptrend = 0·004), especially decanoic acid (10:0) (HR was 1·25 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·42) comparing the highest category with the reference group; Ptrend < 0·001), whereas an inverse relationship was observed for hexanoic acid (6:0) consumption; compared with non-consumers, 6:0 intake was associated with 32 % lower risk of overweight/obesity (HR: 0·68 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·84); Ptrend < 0·001). Overall, the intake of subtypes of MCSFA but not TSFA was associated with the risk of overweight/obesity. Increasing hexanoic acid (6:0) and limiting decanoic acid (10:0) consumption may be protective for overweight/obesity among Chinese population.
The aim of the present study is to determine whether plasma bile acids (BAs) could be used as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Seventeen different BAs were quantitatively measured in plasma of 12 healthy participants and 12 patients with schizophrenia. Then, the data were subjected to correlation and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The concentrations of cholic acid (CA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) were significantly decreased in plasma of the schizophrenia patients. Correlation analysis showed the concentrations of CA, TCDCA and TDCA were negatively correlated with schizophrenia. In addition, LDA demonstrated that combination of CA, TCDCA and TDCA with a classification formula could predict correctly classified cases and the accuracy of prediction was up to 95.83%. Combination of the three BAs may be useful to diagnose schizophrenia in plasma samples.
Battery-casing sealing is the key factor for secure travel of new energy vehicles. We constructed a relatively accurate mechanical-simulation model by selecting a constitutive model, analyzing the influence of thermal elongation, verifying the grid-independence and comparing numerically by the pressure-measurement film on the basis of studying the physical performance of a certain type of sealing material that had been used in battery-casings after aging. Based on a porous-media model and combined with changes of macroscopic and microscopic contact characteristics of materials at different times after aging, the evolution rule of sealing performance with time was analyzed quantitatively by calculating the leakage. By analyzing the structure of circular arc bulge on the surface of sealing material, the radius of circular arc bulge with better sealing performance was obtained, which could reduce the leakage of sealing structure during the material’s lifecycle.
Although altimeters have been widely used to monitor the spatiotemporal variation of sea-ice thickness, they are unable to separate sea-ice freeboard from snow depth. We use a floating GPS deployed on sea ice to derive the freeboard and snow depth near China's Zhongshan Station. Our results show that the standalone floating GPS can monitor freeboard with a precision of 4.2 cm. If time-varying dynamic ocean topography provided by, for example, a bottom pressure gauge is available, then the precision of GPS-derived freeboard can improve to 1.3 cm. The daily snow depth inverted by GPS interferometric reflectometry captures three precipitation events during our experiment, showing that the floating GPS can monitor the variation in snow depth and observe the freeboard variation at the same time. By studying the relationship between freeboard, snow depth and sea-ice thickness, we find that sea-ice thickness will be greatly underestimated by the negative single-point freeboard under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. As a supplement to existing technologies, the GPS-derived freeboard and snow depth can be used both to evaluate the altimeter observations directly and to improve our understanding of the real-time variation of freeboard and snow depth in the experimental area.
Although higher dietary intake of MUFA has been shown to improve glycaemic control and lipid profiles, whether MUFA consumption from different sources is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. We aimed to prospectively assess the associations of plant-derived MUFA (P-MUFA) and animal-derived MUFA (A-MUFA) intakes with T2D risk in a nationwide oriental cohort. Overall, 15 022 Chinese adults, aged ≥20 years, from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997–2011) were prospectively followed up for a median of 14 years. Consumption of MUFA from plant and animal sources was assessed using 3-d 24-h recalls in each survey, and the cumulative average of intake was calculated. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of T2D according to quartiles of MUFA intake. P-MUFA were mainly consumed from cooked vegetable oils, fried bread sticks and rice, while A-MUFA were mainly consumed from pork, lard and eggs. Intake of P-MUFA was associated with a higher risk of T2D (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·50 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·90); Ptrend = 0·0013), whereas A-MUFA showed no significant association (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·84 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·20); Ptrend = 0·30). When further considering the cooking method of food sources, consumption of P-MUFA from fried foods was positively associated with T2D risk (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·60 (95 % CI 1·26, 2·02); Ptrend = 0·0006), whereas non-fried P-MUFA were not associated. Intake of MUFA from fried plant-based foods may elevate T2D risk among the Chinese population.
The Taihangshan Mountain Belt, in the central North China Craton, represents an important crustal and tectonic boundary. To explore the complex tectonic evolution of this area during the Mesozoic–Cenozoic, we gathered zircon and apatite (U–Th)/He thermochronology data along a vertical transect (elevation of 630−1584 m) of the northern part of the Taihang Mountain Belt. From our data, we observed three separate rapid cooling phases that occurred at 100 Ma, 50−40 Ma and 27 Ma. Combined with previously published geochronological ages, we suggest that the uplift of the Taihang Mountain Belt initiated during the Jurassic and experienced multiphase rapid uplift from the Cretaceous to the Cenozoic. The early Cretaceous rapid cooling/uplifting events are widespread in the North China Craton and are caused by the collision between the Okhotomorsk Block and the East Asian continental margin. The Eocene and Oligocene rapid cooling events correspond to the initial rifting and thermal subsidence of the Bohai Bay Basin, indicating a coupling between the creation of basins and mountains.
In this study, coatings containing Ca and P elements on Ti6Al4V alloy were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation at different applied voltages. Subsequently, evaluation of the phase structure, morphology, element composition, corrosion mechanism, and tribocorrosion behavior of these coatings was performed. The results showed that the coatings consisted of rutile TiO2 and anatase TiO2. The ratio of rutile/anatase, surface roughness, and hardness increase with the increase of applied voltage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated the corrosion resistance of coatings in simulated body fluid of 400 V > 380 V > 420 V. The open circuit potential of sample 400 V declined during the tribocorrosion test. Sample 420 V possessed the highest wear volume after the tribocorrosion process. The tribocorrosion mechanism of samples 380 and 420 V was mainly confirmed as the wear effect, and the decline of corrosion resistance due to the micro-cracks formed during the abrasive wear of the coating accounts for the tribocorrosion mechanism of sample 400 V.
Multiple sulphur isotope compositions of sedimentary pyrites across the Ediacaran–Cambrian (Ed–C) transition and into the early Cambrian from the Xiaotan section, Yunnan, South China, are presented to explore the evolution of the sulphur cycle. The values of δ34Spy range from 13.5 ‰ to 35.8 ‰, and the values of Δ33Spy range from −0.044 ‰ to 0.063 ‰. The first-order observation of highly positive δ34Spy is consistent with sulphur isotope records from other sedimentary successions (with various degrees of enrichment in 34S), reflecting a common feature in cycling of sulphur among ocean basins. The positive values suggest that pyrite was formed in a depositional setting with limiting availability of sulphate that suppressed the expression of microbial fractionations. The first-order observation of a 10-million-year period of negative Δ33Spy beginning around the Ed–C boundary likely reflects changes in isotopic compositions of sulphur influx to the oceans. Such changes are suggested to be linked to a pulse of preferred weathering of sulphides (with negative Δ33S) relative to sulphate, which may reflect enhanced exposure of pyrites in continental margins due to reorganization of continents at this time. Both δ34Spy and Δ33Spy data imply low seawater sulphate levels, and possibly heterogeneity in sulphate concentrations in the world’s coastal oceans. The predictions about sulphur isotope signatures of evolved seawater (with highly positive δ34S and negative Δ33S) at the Xiaotan section are testable with future measurements of carbonate-associated sulphate (CAS), a proxy of ancient oceanic sulphate that carries information about the operation of sulphur cycling on a global scale.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
This letter presents a novel tunable coupling structure to simplify the design complexity of the miniaturized fully tunable filter by using open ring and varactors. Based on the proposed novel tunable coupling structure, a fully tunable bandpass filter is implemented with independently tunable operating frequency and bandwidth. The tunable resonator and tunable coupling structure can be easily combined to improve Out-of-band suppression performance. The design procedure of a fully tunable bandpass filter consists of five tunable cavities and tunable coupling rings is also proposed. A prototype of the proposed fully tunable filter is built to verify the design experimentally. Good agreement between simulated and measured results is obtained.
Although previous studies have investigated the association of cruciferous vegetable consumption with breast cancer risk, few studies focused on the association between bioactive components in cruciferous vegetables, glucosinolates (GSL) and isothiocyanates (ITC), and breast cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and breast cancer risk according to GSL and ITC contents in a Chinese population. A total of 1485 cases and 1506 controls were recruited into this case–control study from June 2007 to March 2017. Consumption of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ. Dietary GSL and ITC were computed by using two food composition databases linking GSL and ITC contents in cruciferous vegetables with responses to the FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI were assessed by unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for the potential confounders. Significant inverse associations were found between consumption of cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC and breast cancer risk. The adjusted OR comparing the highest with the lowest quartile were 0·51 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·63) for cruciferous vegetables, 0·54 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·67) for GSL and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·76) for ITC, respectively. These inverse associations were also observed in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis by hormone receptor status found inverse associations between cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC and both hormone-receptor-positive or hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer. This study indicated that consumption of cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (<once/week), multivariable adjusted OR for elevated depressive symptoms were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·28, 1·81), 2·24 (95 % CI 1·76, 2·81) and 3·31 (95 % CI 2·52, 4·30) for consumption of once, 2–3 times and ≥4 times/week, respectively (Pfor trend<0·0001), indicating a clear dose–response relationship. The results suggested that higher consumption of PE was strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.
A comprehensive geochronological and geochemical study was carried out on the gneissic monzogranites, porphyritic granodiorites and charnockites in the Gaozhou complex of the Yunkai massif in the southern part of the South China block to better understand the Early Palaeozoic tectonic regime of the South China block. Laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U–Pb dating of zircons indicates an age of 453.2 ± 5.1 Ma to the formation of the gneissic monzogranites, whereas the porphyritic granodiorites and charnockites were generated at 437.0 ± 1.5 Ma and 435.2 ± 2.2 Ma, respectively. The gneissic monzogranites show geochemical features consistent with the high-K, calc-alkaline rock series and are strongly peraluminous. They have SiO2 contents ranging from 67.75 to 69.65 wt. % and relatively low CaO contents (1.66–1.94 wt. %). Their REE patterns are fractionated with enriched LREEs and negative Eu anomalies. The samples also show enrichment in LILEs (e.g. Rb and K) and Pb, and depletion in Sr, Ba and HFSEs (e.g. Nb, Ta, Ti and P). They have εNd(t) values of −8.2 to −7.7. Conversely, the porphyritic granodiorites and charnockites are characterized as medium-K, calc-alkaline rock series and weakly to strongly peraluminous. They exhibit pronounced depletions in HFSEs and positive Pb anomalies. Compared to the earlier gneissic monzogranites, these rocks have relatively lower SiO2 (65.50–69.36 wt. %), but higher CaO contents (3.34–4.05 wt. %), and have slightly lower εNd(t) values (−9.1 to −8.4). Petrography and geochemical compositions of the gneissic monzogranites indicate that they are S-type granite and likely formed by partial melting of Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic immature metagreywackes; whereas The porphyritic granodiorites and charnockites are A-type granite and likely derived from low degrees of partial melting of the dry, granulitic residue depleted by prior extraction of granitic melt. The new data for the Caledonian granitoids in the Yunkai massif suggest that they were formed in a post-collisional tectonic setting. They represent the earliest post-collisional alkaline magmatism reported so far in the Yunkai massif, and thus indicate a tectonic regime switch, from compression to extension, as early as the Late Ordovician to Early Silurian (~450–435 Ma).
The semilocal convergence of a third-order Newton-like method for solving nonlinear equations is considered. Under a weak condition (the so-called γ-condition) on the derivative of the nonlinear operator, we establish a new semilocal convergence theorem for the Newton-like method and also provide an error estimate. Some numerical examples show the applicability and efficiency of our result, in comparison to other semilocal convergence theorems.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
A novel stainless steel porous twisted wire material (PTWM) is made of twisted short wires by compaction followed by vacuum high-temperature solid-phase sintering. The twisted short wires are fabricated by using a self-developed rotary multicutter tool to cut stainless steel wire ropes. The PTWMs with 46–70% porosities have been investigated in terms of porous structures and Charpy impact behavior. The PTWMs with spatial composite intertexture structures exhibit interconnected open-pore microstructures with a variety of shapes and sizes. The pore size distributions became convergent with decreasing porosities. The span of pore distribution of the PTWM with a diameter of 90 μm was half than that of the PTWM with a diameter of 160 μm under 65–66% porosity. The impact toughness of the former is 2.6 times than that of the latter. By increasing the porosity from 46 to 70%, the impact toughness decreases from 17.9 to 9.1 J/cm2. Macroscopically integral failure-morphologies of the PTWMs present mixed ductile–brittle failure mechanisms, but microscopic impact deformation and failure mechanisms mainly show the ductile failure and fracture of pore skeletons. The PTWMs demonstrate complex energy absorption mechanisms.
Previous studies have investigated the association between dietary inflammatory potential and the development of cancer. For breast cancer the results have been equivocal. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher Dietary Inflammatory IndexTM (DII) scores were associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 867 cases and 824 controls were recruited into the present case–control study from September 2011 to February 2016. DII scores were computed based on baseline dietary intake assessed by a validated 81-item FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI were assessed by multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for various potential confounders. DII scores in this study ranged from −5·87 (most anti-inflammatory score) to +5·71 (most proinflammatory score). A higher DII score was associated with a higher breast cancer risk (adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 2·28; 95 % CI 1·71, 3·03; adjusted ORcontinuous 1·40; 95 %CI 1·25, 1·39). In stratified analyses, positive associations also were observed except for underweight women or women with either oestrogen receptor+ or progesterone receptor+ status (but not both). Results from this study indicated that higher DII scores, corresponding to more proinflammatory diets, were positively associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
Pressure-correction projection finite element methods (FEMs) are proposed to solve nonstationary natural convection problems in this paper. The first-order and second-order backward difference formulas are applied for time derivative, the stability analysis and error estimates of the semi-discrete schemes are presented using energy method. Compared with characteristic variational multiscale FEM, pressure-correction projection FEMs are more efficient and unconditionally energy stable. Ample numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the pressure-correction projection FEMs for solving these problems.