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Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA, at an EPA:DHA ratio of 150:500) and phytosterol esters (PS) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six NAFLD subjects were randomly assigned to the following groups: the PS group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS); the FO group (receiving 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d); the PS + FO combination group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS and 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d) and the PO group (a placebo group). The baseline clinical characteristics of the four groups were similar. The primary outcome was liver:spleen attenuation ratio (L:S ratio). The percentage increase in liver–spleen attenuation (≤1) in the PS + FO group was 36 % (P = 0·083), higher than those in the other three groups (PS group, 11 %, P = 0·519; FO group, 18 %, P = 0·071; PO group, 15 %, P = 0·436). Compared with baseline, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was significantly decreased in the three study groups at the end of the trial (PS, P = 0·000; FO, P = 0·002; PS + FO, P = 0·001) and TNF-α was significantly decreased in the FO group (P = 0·036), PS + FO group (P = 0·005) and PO group (P = 0·032) at the end of the intervention. Notably, TGF-β was reduced significantly more in the PS + FO group than in the PO group (P = 0·032). The TAG and total cholesterol levels of the PS + FO group were reduced by 11·57 and 9·55 %, respectively. In conclusion, co-supplementation of PS and EPA + DHA could increase the effectiveness of treatment for hepatic steatosis.
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is enormously important in suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the structural alterations in the brains of people with MDD and suicidal ideation. We examined the gray matter volume (GMV) of the PFC of individuals with MDD and suicidal ideation to determine if PFC volumetric differences contribute to suicidal ideation in patients with MDD. Thirty-five subjects with MDD and suicidal ideation, 38 subjects with MDD but without suicidal ideation, and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent T1-weighted imaging. A voxel-based morphometric analysis was conducted to compare the PFC GMVs of the three groups. Further GMV reductions in the left and right dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) were detected in the MDD with suicidal ideation group compared with those in the HC group and the MDD without suicidal ideation group, whereas the MDD without suicidal ideation group only exhibited significant differences in the left DLPFC relative to the HC group. Our findings demonstrated that left DLPFC reductions were associated with MDD and suicidal ideation, and diminished GMV reductions in the right DLPFC and right VLPFC were only associated with suicidal ideation. These results help us better understand the neuropathological changes in MDD with suicidal ideation.
We present detailed petrography, geochemistry and zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopes of the Mante Aobao granite porphyry in East Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, with the aim of determining its age and petrogenesis, important for understanding the early Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Xing’an–Mongolian Orogenic Belt. The Mante Aobao granite porphyry consists of plagioclase, quartz and minor biotite, but without amphibole. Zircon U–Pb analyses yield ages of 450 ± 1 Ma and 445 ± 2 Ma for the granite porphyry, indicating that it formed during Late Ordovician time. The granite porphyry is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (aluminous saturation index A/CNK = 0.98–1.11) with high SiO2, K2O and Na2O concentrations and differentiation index (DI = 85–90). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns display enrichment of light REEs (LREEs) with high ratios of (La/Yb)N and negative Eu anomalies. In the mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, all samples are characterized by depletions of high-field-strength elements (HFSEs; Nb, Ta and Ti) and enrichments of large-ion lithophiles (LILEs; Rb, Th, U and K). These geochemical features indicate that the granite porphyry is a highly fractionated I-type granite and formed in a subduction-related setting. Zircon grains have positive εHf(t) values of +9.2 to +11.2, and TDM2(Hf) ages of 691–821 Ma, suggesting that the granite porphyry was generated by partial melting of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust with involvement of fractional crystallization during magmatic evolution. It is likely that underplating of mantle-derived magmas during Late Ordovician time provided the necessary heat to partially melt this juvenile crust. Combined with the regional geological data, we infer that the Mante Aobao granite porphyry was emplaced in an active continental margin setting that was probably related to the northwards subduction of the Paleo-Asian Plate beneath the South Mongolian Terrane along the Sonid Zuoqi–Xilinhot axis.
We have designed and developed the digital correlation receiver for Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER). The MUSER digital correlation receiver is implemented to sample, channelise, and correlate a 400 MHz wide solar radio signal of 40-antenna output from MUSER intermediate-frequency array and 60-antenna output from MUSER high-frequency array. The polyphase filter channeliser is used for wide-band channelisation and proved to be efficient to realise narrow-band filtering (
MHz) in a high-speed digital signal-processing pipeline (sampling rate
Gsps). All modules of the digital correlation receiver are implemented on FPGA-based hardware and integrated via high-speed backplane, which makes a well-performed and economical correlator system for MUSER array. The future upgrade is also addressed including spectral resolution enhancement and radio-frequency-interference excision.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
A growing trend of aging population of China has brought tremendous pressure on the domestic care system, and community education is one of the important content for elderly services. Based on the framework of SAPAD, the community English class in Guangzhou City is taken for case study. Depth research on three stakeholeders-the elderly, social workers and volunteers are carried out by interview, user observation and field research. 6 levels (physical level, syntactic level, empirical level, semantic level, pragmatic level and social level) are extracted based on SAPAD framework, and the behavior- object-significance mapping is completed. Significant clusters of multiple users at different levels are analyzed, and 16 core significant clusters are jointly built. By linking with clustering results of the syntactic level, 6 new function modules are obtained. Finally, the community elderly education service system is built through personas, service blueprint, touch points and storyboard. The new service system will improve learning efficiency, satisfactions and emotional appeals for the elderly, and work efficiency of social workers and volunteers.
Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER) is an aperture-synthesis imaging telescope, dedicated to observe the Sun, operating on multiple frequencies in dm to cm range. The ability of MUSER to get images and measure Stokes I and V parameters simultaneously at many frequencies in a wide band is of fundamental importance. It allows one to approach/solve such important problems as measuring the strength, geometry and dynamics of magnetic field at coronal heights. Here we consider some of the recently developed radio physics methods to be used for solving the problems. These methods allow us to obtain information that is unattainable in other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum.
AZ91 magnesium plates with a thickness of 6 mm were subjected to one- and two-pass friction stir processing (FSP). Microstructures and mechanical properties of the experimental materials were investigated. The results show that FSP can significantly refine the microstructures of magnesium alloys, and two-pass FSP can prepare slightly finer grains in comparison with one-pass FSP. Some coarse β-Mg17Al12 phases existed in the first pass FSP break and dissolve into the matrix under the action of the second pass FSP. Microhardness distribution of the two-pass FSP AZ91 alloy exhibits no too much difference with that of the one-pass FSP AZ91 alloy. Due to further finer microstructures, the tensile properties of the two-pass FSP alloy are slightly higher than those of the one-pass FSP alloy. Both FSP AZ91 alloys show typical ductile fracture characteristics, while the dimples on the two-pass FSP specimen are much deeper and increase in quantity.
Catalysts play essential roles in the chemical vapor deposition of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this article, we summarize studies on catalysts for the structure-controlled growth and mass production of SWCNTs, discussing the main progress and the remaining challenges.
Three gravity cores (LZK1, ZKA4, and CSJA6) from the incised Yangtze paleo-valley comprise a thick sequence of the post-glacial deposit. Nineteen genera (26 species) of the benthic foraminifers are described from these cores, with detailed down-core foraminiferal variations to investigate their paleoenvironmental implications. Three foraminiferal assemblages are recognized for the lower, middle, and upper parts of the cores respectively. The lower part is dominated by Ammonia beccarii var. and Florilus decorus with lower abundance and diversity. In the middle part, the foraminifers are abundant and diverse, dominated by both Ammonia beccarii var. and Elphidium advenum. Cavarotalia annectens, Pararotalia nipponica, and porcellaneous benthic foraminiferal forms are always present, sometimes abundant. The upper part is characterized by the Ammonia beccarii-Elphidium magellanicum assemblage, except for the Core ZKA4, which is barren of foraminifers in this interval. AMS 14C dates and foraminiferal assemblages both confirm that the transgression-regression sequence in these cores belongs to the “Ammonia transgression” during the Holocene. In addition to documenting the post-glacial sea-level fluctuations, the benthic foraminifers also reflect a warmer climate during the early–middle Holocene. The foraminiferal differences among the three cores can be used to interpret the influence of seawater during the post-glacial sea-level fluctuations. The area in the vicinity of Core ZKA4 was affected by marine water only during the middle Holocene, which was much shorter than the areas of the other cores.
Nitrogen is an essential element for biological activity, and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geological samples record information about both marine biological processes and environmental evolution. However, only a few studies of N isotopes in the early Cambrian have been published. In this study, we analysed nitrogen isotopic compositions, as well as trace elements and sulphur isotopic compositions of cherts, black shales, carbonaceous shales and argillaceous carbonates from the Daotuo drill core in Songtao County, NE Guizhou Province, China, to reconstruct the marine redox environment of both deep and surface seawater in the study area of the Yangtze shelf margin in the early Cambrian. The Mo–U covariation pattern of the studied samples indicates that the Yangtze shelf margin area was weakly restricted and connected to the open ocean through shallow water flows. Mo and U concentrations, δ15Nbulk and δ34Spy values of the studied samples from the Yangtze shelf margin area suggest ferruginous but not sulphidic seawater and low marine sulphate concentration (relatively deep chemocline) in the Cambrian Fortunian and early Stage 2; sulphidic conditions (shallow chemocline and anoxic photic zone) in the upper Cambrian Stage 2 and lower Stage 3; and the depression of sulphidic seawater in the middle and upper Cambrian Stage 3. Furthermore, the decreasing δ15N values indicate shrinking of the marine nitrate reservoir during the middle and upper Stage 3, which reflects a falling oxygenation level in this period. The environmental evolution was probably controlled by the changing biological activity through its feedback on the local marine environment.
Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case–control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (Pinteraction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (Pinteraction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.
Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) offers a means of guiding the search for the unique or rare events by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and allows electron microscopy (EM) to zoom in on them for subsequent EM examination in three-dimensions (3D) and with nanometer-scale resolution. FM visualizes the localization of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or proteins in a large field-of-view to study their cellular function, whereas EM provides the high level of resolution for complex structures. And cryo CLEM combines the advantages of maintaining structural preservation in a near-native state throughout the entire imaging process and by avoiding potentially harmful pre-treatments, such as chemical fixation, dehydration and staining with heavy metals. Besides for frozen-hydrated biological samples, CLEM combines the advantages of a close-to-life preservation of biological materials by keeping them embedded in vitreous ice throughout the entire imaging process and the frozen-hydrated condition is very suitable to maintain fluorescent signals. In recent years, many new instruments and software which intended to optimize the workflow and to obtain better experimental results of CLEM have been presented or even commoditized. While, the specimen damage during transfer from FM to EM and the resolution of CLEM were still need to be improved.
Here we set up a High-vacuum Optical Platform to develop CLEM imaging technology (HOPE), which was designed to realize high-vacuum optical ( fluorescent) imaging for cryo-sample on EM cryo-holder (e.g. Gatan 626). A non-integrated high-vacuum cryo-optical stage, which adapted to the EM cryo holder, was fixed on epi-fluorescence microscope (or super-resolution microscope) to obtain fluorescent images. And then the EM cryo holder would be transferred to EM for collection of EM data. This protocol was aimed to minimize the specimen damage during transfer from FM to EM and it was versatile to expend to different types of light microscopy or electron microscopy. Our HOPE had already passed correlative imaging test, and the results showed that it was convenient and effective.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45 % of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6 % dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.
Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95 % CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk.
The etiology and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders has yet to be elucidated, so their differential diagnosis is a challenge. This is especially true in differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA).
A total of 11 eligible articles were identified by search of electronic databases including PubMed, Springer Link, Elsevier, and the Cochrane Library, up to June 2014. In meta-analyses, standardized mean differences (SMD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures of α-synuclein between the above conditions were calculated using random-effects models.
CSF α-synuclein concentrations were significantly higher in AD compared to DLB [SMD: 0.32, 95% CI: (0.02, 0.62), z = 2.07, P = 0.038]; PD [SMD: 0.87, 95% CI: (0.15, 1.58), z = 2.38, P = 0.017]; or MSA [SMD: 1.14, 95% CI: (0.15, 2.14), z = 2.25, P = 0.025]. However, no significant difference was found between patients with AD and neurological cognitively normal controls [SMD: 0.02, 95% CI: (−0.21, 0.24), z = 0.13, P = 0.894].
Results of these meta-analysis suggest that quantification of CSF α-synuclein could help distinguish AD from other neurodegenerative disorders such as DLB, PD, or MSA.