Objective – To review recent literature documenting how family, twin and molecular genetic studies of eating disorders have revolutionized our conceptualizations of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Methods – We summarized extant litera-ture on genetic epidemiology of eating disorders. Results – Results of extant studies highlight the underlying biological vulnera- bilities associated with these conditions. Genetic research has also opened up new avenues and approaches for exploring how the environment exerts its influence on risk. Conclusions – We discuss state-of-the-science findings in the genetics of eating disorders, explore various mechanisms of gene-environment interplay, and discuss implications of this research for science, practice, families and individuals with eating disorders.