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Suicidal behaviour remains a major public health concern and countries have responded by authoring guidelines to help mitigate death by suicide. Guidelines can include family-based recommendations, but evidence for the level and category of family-based involvement that is needed to effectively prevent suicide is unclear.
To explore the association between family-based recommendations in guidelines and countries’ crude suicide rates. PROSPERO registration: CRD42019130195.
MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science and WHO MiNDbank databases and grey literature were searched within the past 20 years (1 January 2000 to 22 June 2020) for national guidelines giving family-based recommendations in any of three categories (prevention, intervention and postvention).
We included 63 guidelines from 46 countries. All identified guidelines included at least one family-based recommendation. There were no statistically significant differences seen between mean World Health Organization crude suicide rates for countries that included only one, two or all three categories of family-based recommendations. However, a lower spread of crude suicide rates was seen when guideline recommendations included all three categories (mean crude suicide rates for one category: 11.09 (s.d. = 5.71); for two categories: 13.42 (s.d. = 7.76); for three categories: 10.68 (s.d. = 5.20); P = 0.478).
Countries should work towards a comprehensive national suicide guideline that includes all categories of family-based recommendations. Countries with previously established guidelines should work towards the inclusion of evidence-based recommendations that have clear implementation plans to potentially help lower suicide rates.
Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Probiotics have been studied as a measure to prevent CDI. Timely probiotic administration to at-risk patients receiving systemic antimicrobials presents significant challenges. We sought to determine optimal implementation methods to administer probiotics to all adult inpatients aged 55 years receiving a course of systemic antimicrobials across an entire health region. Methods: Using a randomized stepped-wedge design across 4 acute-care hospitals (n = 2,490 beds), the probiotic Bio-K+ was prescribed daily to patients receiving systemic antimicrobials and was continued for 5 days after antimicrobial discontinuation. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to identify barriers, and the implementation strategy was adapted to address the key identified barriers. The implementation strategy included clinical decision support involving a linked flag on antibiotic ordering and a 1-click order entry within the electronic medical record (EMR), provider and patient education (written/videos/in-person), and local site champions. Protocol adherence was measured by tracking the number of patients on therapeutic antimicrobials that received BioK+ based on the bedside nursing EMR medication administration records. Adherence rates were sorted by hospital and unit in 48- and 72-hour intervals with recording of percentile distribution of time (days) to receipt of the first antimicrobial. Results: In total, 340 education sessions with >1,800 key stakeholders occurred before and during implementation across the 4 involved hospitals. The overall adherence of probiotic ordering for wards with antimicrobial orders was 78% and 80% at 48 and 72 hours, respectively over 72 patient months. Individual hospital adherence rates varied between 77% and 80% at 48 hours and between 79% and 83% at 72 hours. Of 246,144 scheduled probiotic orders, 94% were administered at the bedside within a median of 0.61 days (75th percentile, 0.88), 0.47 days (75th percentile, 0.86), 0.71 days (75th percentile, 0.92) and 0.67 days (75th percentile, 0.93), respectively, at the 4 sites after receipt of first antimicrobial. The key themes from the focus groups emphasized the usefulness of the linked flag alert for probiotics on antibiotic ordering, the ease of the EMR 1-click order entry, and the importance of the education sessions. Conclusions: Electronic clinical decision support, education, and local champion support achieved a high implementation rate consistent across all sites. Use of a 1-click order entry in the EMR was considered a key component of the success of the implementation and should be considered for any implementation strategy for a stewardship initiative. Achieving high prescribing adherence allows more precision in evaluating the effectiveness of the probiotic strategy.
Funding: Partnerships for Research and Innovation in the Health System, Alberta Innovates/Health Solutions Funding: Award
Background and purpose: Adherence to medication is fundamental to optimal health recovery yet compliance to medication rates are lower than 50% in most studies. This study aimed to investigate the correlates of adherence in stroke patients. Method: Twenty-six stroke patients and 29 amputee patients who had completed a rehabilitation program at Melbourne Rehabilitation Centre were investigated. Medical adherence was determined from computed adherence metrics based on pill counts and subjective reports of patient knowledge of medication use. Model components that were believed to contribute to poor adherence, included emotional and cognitive dysfunction, beliefs about medication, and social support. These factors were assessed by patient and partner self-rating questionnaires. Results: Stroke patients showed a lower level of adherence compared to amputee patients. Cognitive and emotional dysfunction, beliefs about medication, and the level of care were significantly associated with low adherence to medicine regimes in stroke patients. Level of cognitive impairment and emotional impairment were significantly associated with low adherence to medicines in amputee patients. Emotional dysfunction was the best predictor of poor adherence in both patient groups. Conclusion: The findings are in keeping with past adherence studies with other patient groups and support the position that emotional, cognitive, and social factors are important factors in adherence. The specific nonadherence profile for this brain-damaged group is modeled and the application for outpatients following rehabilitation is discussed.
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