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Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
To determine whether the molecular epidemiological characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had changed in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Retrospective review of medical records.
Level III NICU of a university-affiliated children's hospital in New York, New York.
Case patients were neonates hospitalized in the NICU who were colonized or infected with MRSA.
Rates of colonization and infection with MRSA during the period from 2000 through 2008 were assessed. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC) mecA analysis and genotyping for S. aureus encoding protein A (spa) were performed on representative MRSA isolates from each clonal pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern.
Endemic MRSA infection and colonization occurred throughout the study period, which was punctuated by 4 epidemiologic investigations during outbreak periods. During the study period, 93 neonates were infected and 167 were colonized with MRSA. Surveillance cultures were performed for 1,336 neonates during outbreak investigations, and 115 (8.6%) neonates had MRSA-positive culture results. During 2001-2004, healthcare-associated MRSA clones, carrying SCC mec type II, predominated. From 2005 on, most MRSA clones were community-associated MRSA with SCC mec type IV, and in 2007, USA300 emerged as the principal clone.
Molecular analysis demonstrated a shift from healthcare-associated MRSA (2001-2004) to community-associated MRSA (2005-2008).
To describe the prevalence of Staphylococcus warneri on the hands of nurses and the clinical relevance of this organism among neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Prospective cohort study that examined the microbial flora on the hands of nurses and clinical isolates recovered from neonates during a 23-month period (March 1, 2001, through January 31, 2003).
Two high-risk NICUs in New York City.
All neonates hospitalized in the NICUs for more than 24 hours and all full-time nurses from the same NICUs who volunteered to participate.
At baseline and then every 3 months, samples for culture were obtained from each nurse's cleaned dominant hand. Pulsed-field electrophoresis compared S. warneri isolates from neonates and staff.
Samples for culture (n = 834) were obtained from the hands of 119 nurses; 520 (44%) of the 1,195 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered were identified as S. warneri. Of the 647 clinically relevant isolates recovered from neonates, 17 (8%) of the 202 isolates that were identified to species level were S. warneri. Pulsed-field electrophoresis revealed a common strain of S. warneri that was shared among the nurses and neonates. Furthermore, 117 (23%) of 520 S. warneri isolates from nurses' hands had minimum inhibitory concentrations for vancomycin of 4 μg/mL, which indicate decreasing susceptibility.
Our findings that S. warneri can be pathogenic in neonates, is a predominant species of coagulase-negative staphylococci cultured from the hands of nurses, and has decreased vancomycin susceptibility underscore the importance of continued surveillance for vancomycin resistance and pathogenicity in pediatric care settings.
Serratia marcescens can cause serious infections in patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), including sepsis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and conjunctivitis. We report the utility of genetic fingerprinting to identify, investigate, and control two distinct outbreaks of S. marcescens.
An epidemiologic investigation was performed to control two clusters of S. marcescens infections and to determine possible routes of transmission. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis determined the relatedness of S. marcescens strains recovered from neonates, the environment, and the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs).
Two geographically distinct level III-IV NICUs (NICU A and NICU B) in two university-affiliated teaching hospitals in New York City.
In NICU A, one major clone, “F,” was detected among isolates recovered from four neonates and the hands of one HCW. A second predominant clone, “A,” was recovered from four sink drains and one rectal surveillance culture from an asymptomatic neonate. In NICU B, four neonates were infected with clone “D,” and three sink drains harbored clone “H.” The attributable mortality rate from bloodstream infections was 60% (3 of 5 infants). The antimicrobial susceptibilities of clone F strains varied for amikacin, cefepime, and piperacillin/tazobactam.
S. marcescens causes significant morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates. Cross-transmission via transient hand carriage of a HCW appeared to be the probable route of transmission in NICU A. Sinks did not harbor the outbreak strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns did not prove to be an accurate predictor of strain relatedness for S. marcescens.
To describe the aerobic microbial flora on the hands of experienced and new graduate nurses over time.
A prospective cohort design that examined the relationship between duration of employment in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the microbial flora on the hands of experienced and new graduate nurses during a 23-month period.
A 50-bed, level III-IV neonatal ICU in New York City.
Twelve experienced nurses and 9 new graduate nurses working full time in the NICU.
One hundred fifty samples were obtained from the clean, dominant hands of the nurses. Cultures were performed at baseline and then quarterly for each experienced and new graduate nurse. Baseline and final cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis were further examined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
At baseline, a significantly larger proportion of the experienced nurses had methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from their hands compared with the new graduate nurses (95% and 33%, respectively; P = .0004). For a second culture, performed 1 to 4 months later, there were no longer significant differences between the two groups (82% and 54%, respectively; P = .12). By the last culture, all staphylococcal isolates were methicillin resistant in both groups of nurses; 3 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
Colonization with methicillin-resistant staphylococci occurred after brief exposure to the hospital environment, despite the use of antiseptic hand hygiene agents. Furthermore, at final culture, the two groups shared one dominant hospital-acquired strain of S. epidermidis.
From April to June 2001, an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections was investigated in our neonatal intensive care unit.
Cultures of the gastrointestinal tracts of patients, the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs), and the environment were performed to detect potential reservoirs for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. Strains of K. pneumoniae were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using Xbal. A case–control study was performed to determine risk factors for acquisition of the outbreak clone (clone A); cases were infants infected or colonized with clone A and controls (3 per case) were infants with negative surveillance cultures.
During the study period, 19 case-infants, of whom 13 were detected by surveillance cultures, harbored clone A. The overall attack rate for the outbreak strain was 45%; 9 of 19 infants presented with invasive disease (n = 6) or developed invasive disease (n = 3) after colonization was detected. Clone A was found on the hands of 2 HCWs, 1 of whom wore artificial nails, and on the designated stethoscope of a case-infant. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that length of stay per day (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.02 to 1.09) and exposure to the HCW wearing artificial fingernails (OR, 7.87; CI95, 1.75 to 35.36) were associated with infection or colonization with clone A.
Short, well-groomed, natural nails should be mandatory for HCWs with direct patient contact.
To describe the epidemiologic and molecular investigations that successfully contained an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Isolates of MRSA were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and S. aureus protein A (spa).
A level III-IV, 45-bed NICU located in a children's hospital within a medical center.
Incident cases had MRSA isolated from clinical cultures (eg, blood) or surveillance cultures (ie, anterior nares).
Infected and colonized infants were placed on contact precautions, cohorted, and treated with mupirocin. Surveillance cultures were performed for healthcare workers (HCWs). Colonized HCWs were treated with topical mupirocin and hexachlorophene showers.
From January to March 2001, the outbreak strain of MRSA PFGE clone B, was harbored by 13 infants. Three (1.3%) of 235 HCWs were colonized with MRSA. Two HCWs, who rotated between the adult and the pediatric facility, harbored clone C. One HCW, who exclusively worked in the children's hospital, was colonized with clone B. From January 1999 to November 2000, 22 patients hospitalized in the adult facility were infected or colonized with clone B. Spa typing and PFGE yielded concordant results. PFGE clone B was identified as spa type 16, associated with outbreaks in Brazil and Hungary.
A possible route of MRSA transmission was elucidated by molecular typing. MRSA appears to have been transferred from our adult facility to our pediatric facility by a rotating HCW. Spa typing allowed comparison of our institution's MRSA strains with previously characterized outbreak clones.
To explore the role of the community as a potential reservoir for Acinetobacter baumannii.
Antimicrobial resistance patterns and genotypes of A. baumannii isolates from patients in two Manhattan hospitals were compared with those of A. baumannii isolates from the hands of community members.
A total of 103 isolates from two hospitals (hospital A, 81; hospital B, 22) and 23 isolates from community residents were studied. Of the hospital isolates, 36.6% were multidrug resistant (hospital A, 68.2%; hospital B, 27.8%). In contrast, there were no multidrug-resistant isolates from the community (P < .005 between hospital and community). The prevalence of A. baumannii on the hands of community residents was 10.4% (23 of 222). By molecular typing, 42 strains of A. baumannii were identified. Of the isolates from hospital A and hospital B, 55.6% (45 of 81) and 68.2% (15 of 22), respectively, were indistinguishable or closely related. In contrast, most community (83.3%) isolates were unrelated (P = .001 between hospital and community).
Acinetobacter isolates from the community, characterized by a large variety of unrelated strains (83.3%), were distinct from the hospital isolates, of which 58.3% were closely related. The absence of multidrug-resistant strains in the community compared with 36.6% prevalence among hospital isolates suggests that the reservoir for epidemic strains resides in the hospital environment itself. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the community as a potential reservoir for hospital strains of A. baumannii.
When the incidence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection or colonization increased in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), we sought to further our understanding of the relationship among colonization with MSSA, endemic infection, and clonal spread.
A retrospective cohort study was used to determine risk factors for acquisition of a predominant clone of MSSA (clone “B”).
A 45-bed, university-affiliated, level III-IV NICU.
Infants hospitalized in the NICU from October 1999 to September 2000.
Infection control strategies included surveillance cultures of infants, cohorting infected or colonized infants, contact precautions, universal glove use, mupirocin treatment of the anterior nares of all infants in the NICU, and a hexachlorophene bath for infants weighing 1,500 g or more.
During the 1-year study period, three periods of increased incidence of MSSA colonization or infection, ranging from 6.4 to 13.5 cases per 1,000 patient-days per month, were observed. Molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated two predominant clones, clone “B” and clone “G,” corresponding to two periods of increased incidence. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that length of stay (OR, 1.035; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.008 to 1.062; P = .010) (increased risk per day) and the use of H2-blockers (OR, 20.44; CI95, 2.48 to 168.26; P = .005) were risk factors for either colonization or infection with clone “B,” and that the use of peripheral catheters was protective (OR, 0.06; CI95, 0.01 to 0.43; P = .005).
Control of MSSA represents unique challenges as colonization is expected, endemic infections are tolerated, and surveillance efforts generally focus on multidrug-resistant pathogens. Future studies should address cost-effective surveillance strategies for endemic infections.
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