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The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
To determine the association between major dietary patterns characterized by factor analysis and risk of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents.
Diet and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in a cross-sectional survey among students attending junior high school. Dietary patterns were derived from a self-reported FFQ, which consisted of thirty-eight items. Anthropometric measurements were also performed.
Four junior high schools in Bengbu city, China.
A random sample of 5003 adolescents, 11–16 years of age (mean 13·21 years).
Three major dietary patterns were identified in the study based on factor analysis: ‘snack’, ‘animal food’ and ‘traditional’. The prevalence of depression symptoms, anxiety disorders and the coexistence of both were 11·2 % (560/5003), 14·6 % (732/5003) and 12·6 % (629/5003), respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents in the highest tertile of snack dietary pattern scores had a higher odds for ‘pure’ psychological symptoms (‘depression without anxiety’, OR = 1·64; 95 % CI 1·30, 2·06; and ‘anxiety without depression’, OR = 1·87; 95 % CI 1·51, 2·31) compared with coexisting depression and anxiety (OR = 1·93; 95 % CI 1·54, 2·43). Similar to snacks, high consumption of animal foods was associated with a higher risk of psychological symptoms. Compared with low consumption, adolescents in the highest tertile of traditional dietary pattern scores had lower odds for ‘pure’ depression (OR = 0·38; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·49), ‘pure’ anxiety (OR = 0·85; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·04) and coexisting anxiety and depression (OR = 0·50; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·63).
Data from Chinese secondary-school adolescents validated findings from adult populations. Dietary patterns should be considered as important predictors of depression and anxiety among adolescents in further studies.
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