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Although the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) system has been widely adopted in shock temperature measurements, its reliability has always been of concern. Here, two calibrated Planckian radiators with different color temperatures were used to calibrate and verify the SOP system by comparing the two calibration standards using both multi-channel and single-channel methods. A high-color-temperature standard lamp and a multi-channel filter were specifically designed for the measurement system. To verify the reliability of the SOP system, the relative deviation between the measured data and the standard value of less than 5% was calibrated out, which demonstrates the reliability of the SOP system. Furthermore, a method to analyze the uncertainty and sensitivity of the SOP system is proposed. A series of laser-induced shock experiments were conducted at the ‘Shenguang-II’ laser facility to verify the reliability of the SOP system for temperature measurements at tens of thousands of kelvin. The measured temperature of the quartz in our experiments agreed fairly well with previous works, which serves as evidence for the reliability of the SOP system.
Toxigenic Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) carriers represent an important source in the transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) during hospitalisation, but its prevalence and mode in patients with hepatic cirrhosis are not well established. We investigated longitudinal changes in carriage rates and strain types of toxigenic C. difficile from admission to discharge among hepatic cirrhosis patients. Toxigenic C. difficile was detected in 104 (19.8%) of 526 hepatic cirrhosis patients on admission, and the carriage status changed in a portion of patients during hospitalisation. Approximately 56% (58/104) of patients lost the colonisation during their hospital stay. Among the remaining 48 patients who remained positive for toxigenic C. difficile, the numbers of patients who were positive at one, two, three and four isolations were 10 (55.6%), three (16.7%), two (11.1%) and three (16.7%), respectively. Twenty-eight patients retained a particular monophyletic strain at multiple isolations. The genotype most frequently identified was the same as that frequently identified in symptomatic CDI patients. A total of 25% (26/104) of patients were diagnosed with CDI during their hospital stay. Conclusions: Colonisation with toxigenic C. difficile strains occurs frequently in cirrhosis patients and is a risk factor for CDI.
Energy chirp compensation of the electron bunch (e-bunch) in a laser wakefield accelerator, which is caused by the phase space rotation in the gradient wakefield, has been applied in many schemes for low energy spread e-bunch generation. We report the experimental observation of energy chirp compensation of the e-bunch in a nonlinear laser wakefield accelerator with a negligible beam loading effect. By adjusting the acceleration length using a wedge-roof block, the chirp compensation of the accelerated e-bunch was observed via an electron spectrometer. Apart from this, some significant parameters for the compensation process, such as the longitudinal dispersion and wakefield slope at the bunch position, were also estimated. A detailed comparison between experiment and simulation shows good agreement of the wakefield and bunch parameters. These results give a clear demonstration of the longitudinal characteristics of the wakefield in a plasma and the bunch dynamics, which are important for better control of a compact laser wakefield accelerator.
The work is to investigate the relationships between the microstructures and mechanical behaviors of lobster cuticles and reveal the inner mechanisms of the anisotropic mechanical properties of the cuticles and give the helpful guidance for the design of high-performance man-made composites. First, the tensile mechanical properties of the longitudinal and transverse specimens of the cuticles of American lobsters were tested with a mechanical-testing instrument. It is was found that the fracture strength and elastic modulus of the longitudinal specimens are distinctly larger than those of the transverse specimens. Then, the microstructural characteristics of the fracture surfaces of the specimens were observed with scanning electron microscope. It was observed that the pore canals in the cuticles are elliptic and their orientations are along the longitudinal orientation of the cuticles. Furthermore, the stresses and micro-damage of the longitudinal and transverse specimens were calculated with the rule of progressive damage by finite element method. It was revealed that the shape and orientation of the pore canals in the cuticles give rise to the anisotropic mechanical property of the cuticles and ensure that the cuticles possess the largest fracture strength and elastic modulus along their largest main-stress orientation.
Cognition is multidimensional, and each domain plays a unique and crucial part in successful daily life engagement. However, less attention has been paid to multi-domain cognitive health for the elderly, and the role of lifestyle factors in each domain remains unclear.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,230 older adults aged 60+ years in Xiamen, China, in 2016. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to measure general cognition and six specific sub-domains. To account for educational effects, we adjusted the MoCA score and divided respondents into three education-specific groups (low, moderate, and high education groups with ≤5, 6~8, and ≥9 years of education, respectively). A series of proportional odds models were used to detect the associations between two categories of lifestyle factors – substance abuse (cigarette and alcohol) and leisure activity (TV watching, reading, smartphone use, social activity, and exercise) – and general cognition and the six sub-domains in those three groups.
Among the 3,230 respondents, 2,617 eligible participants were included with a mean age of 69.05 ± 7.07 years. Previous or current smoking/drinking was not associated with MoCA scores in the whole population, but unexpectedly, the ex-smokers in the low education group performed better in general cognition (OR = 2.22) and attention (OR = 2.05) than their never-smoking counterparts. Modest TV watching, reading, and smartphone use also contributed to better cognition among elderly participants in the low education group. For the highly educated elderly, comparatively longer reading (>3.5 hours/week) was inversely associated with general cognition (OR = 0.53), memory (OR = 0.59), and language (OR = 0.54), while adequate exercise (5~7 days/week) was positively related to these factors with OR = 1.48, OR = 1.49, and OR = 1.53, respectively. For the moderately educated elderly, only modest reading was significantly beneficial.
Lifestyle factors play different roles in multidimensional cognitive health in different educational groups, indicating that individual intervention strategies should be designed according to specific educational groups and different cognitive sub-domains.
A Position and Orientation System (POS) integrating an Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is a key component of remote sensing motion compensation. It can provide reliable and high-frequency high-precision motion information using a Kalman Filter (KF) during GPS availability. However, the performance of a POS significantly degrades during GPS outages. To maintain reliable POS outputs, this paper proposes a new hybrid predictor based on modelling the nonlinear time-series data-driven INS-errors using Noisy Input Gaussian Process Regression (NIGPR), which takes the input noise into account. The proposed approach is used to learn the nonlinear INS-errors model when GPS signals are available. When GPS outages occur, it starts to predict the observation measurement, and then feeds it to a KF as a virtual update to estimate all the INS errors. The proposed approach is verified in a real airplane, which combines a POS and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly improves the performance of the POS, with improvements more than 90% better than a KF and 10% better than a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR/KF) combination during various GPS outages.
A low-cost, compact, short-pulse ice-penetrating radar (IPR) system with a center frequency of 50 MHz for sounding glacier topography is presented. The radar was developed to measure ice thickness and to image internal structures and basal conditions of glaciers and ice sheets with a maximum range of ∼16000 ns and a depth resolution better than 2.5 m. The receiver of the IPR system employs asynchronous operation mode, avoiding the need for a cable between the transmitter and receiver. A new sampling technology using a high-speed field programmable gate array, which implements a 256-trace stacking algorithm to realize the analog-to-digital conversion, both simplifies the structure of the receiver and increases the sampling efficiency. The power consumption of the whole receiver is <1.5 W, which can be supplied by a laptop computer. Test measurements were made during the 5th China Expedition to the Grove Mountains in East Antarctica. Field tests show the capability of this system to measure ice thickness up to 650 m and to define internal layers within the ice body.
The codeposition characteristics of Si–B–N ceramics from the SiCl4–NH3–BCl3–H2–Ar system at lower temperatures and phase transformation of as-prepared Si–B–N ceramics at temperatures from 1200 to 1800 °C were investigated. Thermodynamic analysis results indicated that the BN + Si3N4 dual phase region existed from 800 to 1200 °C and that 800 °C was an optimum deposition temperature to deposit Si–B–N ceramic coating. Deposition efficiencies at equilibrium for Si3N4 and BN were high, particularly at temperatures below 1000 °C. Pressure and dilution ratio of H2 had little influence on deposition efficiencies of BN and Si3N4 at 800 °C. The amorphous Si–B–N ceramic coatings were successfully deposited at 800 °C from the same precursor system and contained N–B and N–Si bonds by XPS analysis. It kept amorphous below 1600 °C in N2 and partly transformed to α/β-Si3N4 when heat treated at 1600 °C in N2 for 2 h. These results demonstrated that the composite Si–B–N ceramics could be fabricated at 800 °C and used below 1600 °C.
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis prevalent in large parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the rates of Babesia microti infection among small rodents in Yunnan province, where human cases of babesiosis have been reported. Currently, distribution of Babesia in its endemic regions is largely unknown. In this study, we cataloged 1672 small wild rodents, comprising 4 orders, from nine areas in western Yunnan province between 2009 and 2011. Babesia microti DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 4·3% (72/1672) of the rodents analyzed. The most frequently infected rodent species included Apodemus chevrieri and Niviventer fulvescens. Rodents from forests and shrublands had significantly higher Babesia infection rates. Genetic comparisons revealed that Babesia was most similar to the Kobe- and Otsu-type strains identified in Japan. A variety of rodent species might be involved in the enzootic maintenance and transmission of B. microti, supporting the need for further serological investigations in humans.
Previous studies have investigated the association between dietary inflammatory potential and the development of cancer. For breast cancer the results have been equivocal. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher Dietary Inflammatory IndexTM (DII) scores were associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 867 cases and 824 controls were recruited into the present case–control study from September 2011 to February 2016. DII scores were computed based on baseline dietary intake assessed by a validated 81-item FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI were assessed by multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for various potential confounders. DII scores in this study ranged from −5·87 (most anti-inflammatory score) to +5·71 (most proinflammatory score). A higher DII score was associated with a higher breast cancer risk (adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 2·28; 95 % CI 1·71, 3·03; adjusted ORcontinuous 1·40; 95 %CI 1·25, 1·39). In stratified analyses, positive associations also were observed except for underweight women or women with either oestrogen receptor+ or progesterone receptor+ status (but not both). Results from this study indicated that higher DII scores, corresponding to more proinflammatory diets, were positively associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
This paper presents a parameterized gait generator based on linear inverted
pendulum model (LIPM) theory, which allows users to generate a natural gait
pattern with desired step sizes. Five types of zero moment point (ZMP)
components are proposed for formulating a natural ZMP reference, where ZMP moves
continuously during single support phases instead of staying at a fixed point in
the sagittal and lateral plane. The corresponding center of mass (CoM)
trajectories for these components are derived by LIPM theory. To generate a
parameterized gait pattern with user-defined parameters, a gait planning
algorithm is proposed, which determines related coefficients and boundary
conditions of the CoM trajectory for each step. The proposed parameterized gait
generator also provides a concept for users to generate gait patterns with
self-defined ZMP references by using different components. Finally, the
feasibility of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results with
a teen-sized humanoid robot, David, which won first place in the sprint event at
the 20th Federation of International Robot-soccer Association (FIRA) RoboWorld
To obtain accurate navigation results with respect to Earth simultaneously with those with respect to the target for an interplanetary probe to approach the target planet, this paper proposes a Radio/Optical integrated navigation method based on ephemeris correction, which deeply affects the fusion accuracy. In this paper, the model of the ephemeris error is established, and taking the analytical solution of the ephemeris uncertainty as measurement, the target ephemeris error and its covariance are estimated by Kalman filter and fed back to modify the force models. By correcting the target ephemeris and using information fusion, the Radio/Optical integrated navigation prevents the ephemeris uncertainty polluting the fusion accuracy, and efficiently combines the radio and optical navigation results. The results show the influence of the ephemeris error can be removed, and the Radio/Optical integrated navigation is capable of providing accurate navigation results with respect to Earth and the target. The results demonstrate the proposed method yields an accuracy superior to the conventional method, which proves its effectiveness.
In this paper, a class of novel four Degrees of Freedom (DOF) non-overconstrained parallel mechanisms with large rotational workspace is presented based on screw theory. First, the conflict between the number of independent constraints applied on the moving platform and the number of kinematic limbs for 4-DOF non-overconstrained parallel mechanism is identified. To solve this conflict, the platform partition method is introduced, and two secondary platforms are employed in each of the parallel mechanisms. Then, the motion requirements of the secondary platforms are analyzed and all the possible kinematic chains are enumerated. The geometrical assembly conditions of all possible secondary limbs are analyzed and some typical non-overconstrained parallel mechanisms are generated. In each of the parallel mechanisms, a planetary gear train is used to connect both of the secondary platforms. The large rotational workspace of the moving platform is obtained due to the relative motion of the two secondary platforms. Finally, the kinematics analysis of a typical parallel mechanism is conducted.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
The effect of different combinations of a new tri-templating agent TEAOH/DEA/TEA, namely tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide (TEAOH)/diethylamine (DEA)/triethylamine (TEA), on the catalytic performance of SAPO-34 was investigated in MTO conversion. It was found that SAPO-34 and SAPO-5 are competing phases at TEA concentrations higher than 40 %. Pure SAPO-34 with high crystallinity, large BET surface area and small crystal size (0.8~1.4μm) was obtained at a low TEA concentrations. The combination of TEAOH/DEA/TEA strongly governed the acidity of crystals. TEAOH:DEA:TEA=0.67:0.67:0.67 gave an economical catalyst active in MTO reaction with 100 % methanol conversion, 89.39 % ethylene and propylene selectivity, a longest lifetime and a high coke capability of 24.2 wt %.
Pregnancy is a condition exhibiting increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, and Fe plays a central role in generating harmful oxygen species. The objective of the present study is to investigate the changes in haematological status, oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in anaemic pregnant women after Fe supplementation with and without combined vitamins. The study was a 2 months double-blind, randomised trial. Pregnant women (n 164) were allocated to four groups: group C was the placebo control group; group I was supplemented daily with 60 mg Fe (ferrous sulphate) daily; group IF was supplemented daily with Fe plus 400 μg folic acid; group IM was supplemented daily with Fe plus 2 mg retinol and 1 mg riboflavin, respectively. After the 2-month trial, Hb significantly increased by 15·8, 17·3 and 21·8 g/l, and ferritin by 2·8, 3·6 and 11·0 μg/l, in the I, IF and IM groups compared with placebo. Polarisation (ρ) and microviscosity (η) decreased significantly in other groups compared with placebo, indicating an increase in membrane fluidity. Significant decreases of ρ and η values compared with group C were 0·033 and 0·959 for group I, 0·037 and 1·074 for group IF and 0·064 and 1·865 for group IM, respectively. In addition, significant increases of glutathione peroxidase activities and decreases of malondialdehyde were shown in all treated groups, as well as increases of plasma retinol and urine riboflavin in group IM. The findings show that supplementation with Fe and particularly in combination with vitamins could improve the haematological status as well as oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity.
Molecules in the cell membrane are key targets for therapeutic intervention. Technologies that enable the preservation of membrane-bound targets in their biomimetic and pharmacologically active states for screening of potential drug compounds are of great interest to bio-pharmaceutical companies. This review discusses emerging biomembrane technologies with a focus on biomembrane microarrays that enable the parallel analysis of multiple membrane-bound targets.
The bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene, which controls the fecundity of Booroola Merino ewes, was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of Small Tail Han and Hu ewes. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the BMPR-IB gene was detected in both high (Small Tail Han and Hu) and low (Suffolk and Dorset) fecundity sheep breeds by polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. The results indicated the presence of the same mutation (A746G) of the BMPR-IB gene in both Small Tail Han and Hu ewes and in Booroola Merino ewes, but not in both Suffolk and Dorset ewes. In Small Tail Han ewes, frequencies of BB, B+ and ++ genotypes were 0.524, 0.383 and 0.093, respectively. In Hu ewes, these frequencies were 0.882, 0.118 and 0.000. The BMPR-IB genotype distributions were significantly different (P<0.001) among high- and low-fecundity sheep breeds. Small Tail Han ewes with genotype BB had 0.92 (P<0.01) and 1.02 (P<0.01) lambs more than those with genotype ++ in the first and second parity, respectively. These results demonstrated that the BMPR-IB gene is a major gene affecting the prolificacy in both Small Tail Han and Hu ewes, and could be used as a molecular genetic marker to select the litter size in sheep.
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